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Case study

CORRUPTION,PUBLIC
INVESTMENT AND GROWTH

BY:-
Nidhi Verma
Nikita Johari
SUMMARY
Point out the effect of corruption on the
economy and the growth of the country.
Then discuss reasons why we assume the
public investment is particularly sensitive to
the existence of corruption.
Hypotheses testing
Draw conclusion
EXISTENCE OF CORRUPTION
Capital spending is more support by politicians
rather then current spending
Corrupt high level official steer the approval of
investment project towards particular domestic
or foreign enterprises in exchange for bribes
Political personalities steer public investment
towards their own land
Project are chosen exclusively for their bribe-
generating capacity and not for their productivity
EFFECT OF CORRUPTION

Reduce the rate of return of new public


investment and also the rate of return
country is getting from the existing
infrastructure
Do the Empirical analysis
Data is collected from various sources like
Corruption data from
Business international and political risk services
and ICRG
Capital expenditure data from
the IMFs GFS

Then tested hypotheses about the


relationship between corruption on one hand
and public investment, government revenue,
O&M expenditure and quality of
infrastructure on the other.
CONCLUSION
Corruption can reduces economic growth by
increasing public investment while reducing
Its productivity,
In adequate O&M expenditure,
Quality of the existing infrastructure,
Lowering government revenue needed to finance
productive spending.
TYPE OF DATA
Pooled data has been used of various countries
from 1980-95.
METHOD USED TO EVALUATE
CORRUPTION

Corruption is evaluated on the basis of


relationship between government spending and
growth.
Measurement and introduction of variable

Different variables used are:


Corruption index
Real per capita GDP
Government revenue -GDP ratio
As independent variable

Public investment
Government revenues
O &m expenditure
Quality of public investment
As dependent variable
All these dependent variables have been
measured in terms of their relationship with
corruption.
HYPOTHESIS TESTED IN
THE PAPER
1. High corruption is associated with high
public investment.
2. High corruption is associated with low
government revenue.
3. High corruption is associated with low O&M
expenditure.
4. High corruption is associated with poor
quality of infrastructure.
Single, Multiple Or Stepwise Regression?

All the three i.e. , single, multiple and


stepwise
Regression.
RESULTS OF DIFFERENT
HYPOTHESIS TESTED
1. Accepted the hypothesis at 1% significance
level suggesting that corruption is highly
associated with the public investment.

2. Accepted the hypothesis at 1% significance


level suggesting that corruption is highly
associated with the low government revenue.
3. Accepted the hypothesis at 1% significance
level suggesting that corruption is highly associated
with the low O&M expenditure i.e., corruption may
result in low O&M expenditure.

4. Accepted the hypothesis at 1% significance level


suggesting that corruption is highly associated with
the poor quality of infrastructure .
Corruption has strongest impact on the quality of
roads, power outages and railway diesel in use.
FINAL CONCLUSION
1. Corruption can reduce growth by increasing public
investment while reducing its productivity.

2. Corruption can reduce growth by increasing public


investment that is not accompanied by its recurrent
current expenditure .i.e., adequate non wages O&M
expenditure.

3. Corruption can reduce growth by reducing the quality of


existing infrastructure.

4. Corruption can reduce growth by lowering government


revenues needed to finance productive spending.
DUMMY VARIABLES USED?

No dummy variables used


ANOVA OR ANCOVA?

ANOVA :- Adjusted R square and t-test


VARIABLE USED BY AUTHOR FOR GROWTH
AND CORRUPTION IN ECONOMY

Government spending both capital and current


expenditure.