Sie sind auf Seite 1von 54



Prepared by: Satnam

Assistant Professor
Mechanical Departmen

Stratified charge spark ignition engine

Homogeneous charge compression ignition engine
Electronic engine management (EEM)
Lean Burn Engines
Plasma Ignition system
Superchargers and Turbochargers
Exhaust gas Recirculation (EGR)
Three-Way catalytic converter

Timing of combustion is very important and the homogeneous mixture is compressed

and combustion begins whenever the appropriate conditions are reached.

There should be control system that controls following factors

Variable compression ratio (plunger system and variable valve actuating)

Variable induction temperature (resistance heater and fast thermal management)

Variable exhaust gas percentage (hot and cold EGR System)

Variable valve actuation (controlling compression ratio and hot/old EGR)

Variable fuel ignition quality (blending of fuels)

Examples are Volkswagon, Ford, Texaco, Honda

In an ideal, 100 per cent efficientinternal combustion engine, thefuelwould burn to give justcarbon
dioxideand water vapour. In practice, of course,enginesare far from efficient and
thecombustionprocess also producescarbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogenand unburnthydrocarbons,
as well ascarbondioxide and water vapour.
Lean Burn engines have injection system and proper combustion chamber
design in which the injector injects the pure and clean fuel where there is
intensive swirling air- motion.
Spark plug is in the centre and nearest to the fuel particles and higher thermal
efficiency can be achieved and decreasing the fuel consumption by 5-25%.
Unburned hydrocarbons are reduced up to 80% due to plenty of air available.
Spraying just behind the inlet valves result in homogeneous mixture
Negative side is high Nox emissions due to high heat and cylinder pressure.
Not operated with catalytic converter.
Turbocharger is used in lean burn engines to make mixture
Engine management system is used to monitor all combustion parameters, fuel
flow, air-gas mixture and ignition timing.
Open combustion chamber housed in a piston crown is used.
Using this technology, Nox emissions are as low as possible which is 0.85 g/bp-h.
Examples are Toyota, Honda, Mitsubhishi
A plasma ignition system having a plurality of plasma ignition plugs
eliminates a mechanical distributor for sequentially distributing plasma
ignition energy into each plasma ignition plug. The plasma ignition system

(a) a high DC voltage surge generator for generating and outputting a high
DC voltage surge to one of the plasma ignition plugs to be ignited so as to
develop a spark discharge due to dielectric breakdown; (b) a plasma ignition
energy generator such as a voltage booster for boosting a low DC voltage; (c)
a capacitor for storing the plasma ignition energy generated by the plasma
ignition energy generator; (d) a plurality of rectifiers each connected to either
end of the capacitor and one of the plasma ignition plugs; a means for
generating and outputting a trigger signal at every ignition timing; and (e) a
pair of electrical switching elements, each connected between either end of
the capacitor and ground, for grounding either end of said capacitor when the
trigger signal generated at every ignition timing is received.
The present invention relates generally to a plasma ignition system having a plasma ignition plug
within each combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and more particularly to a plasma
ignition system which does not require a mechanical distributor for applying a plasma ignition energy
sequentially to one of a plurality of engine cylinders.
A conventional plasma ignition system comprises a DC power supply such as a vehicle battery, an
ignition coil having a primary winding and a secondary winding, an interrupter connected to the ignition
coil which opens and closes in synchronization with engine revolutions and a plurality of plasma ignition
plugs, each mounted in a cylinder. The conventional system further utilizes a distributor having a drive
shaft with a breaker cam and an advance mechanism. A breaker plate is provided with contact points, a
capacitor for absorbing an arc generated as any one of the contacts is reopened, and a rotor, a drive
shaft attached to the rotor driven by the engine camshaft through spiral gears, rotating at one-half
crankshaft speed. The contact points open or close according to the rotation of the drive shaft and
breaker cam, and the breaker cam rotates at half the crankshaft speed. The contact points, thus, close
and open once for each cylinder with every breaker-cam rotation. Further, there is provided a first diode
connected to the secondary winding of the ignition coil and to the rotor of the distributor; a second
diode, connected to the rotor of the distributor; a current suppressing coil connected to the cathode
terminal of the second diode; a voltage booster, connected to the plus polarity of the DC power supply;
and a capacitor, connected to the output terminal of the voltage booster and to the coil.

Allows burned exhaust gases to enter the engine intake manifold.

Reduces NOx emissions
When exhaust gases are added to the air fuel mixture, they decrease peek
combustion temperatures...

For this reason, an exhaust gas recirculation

system lowers amounts of NOx in exhaust.
Heres what they look like...
The EGR valve consists of...

A vacuum diaphragm
A spring
A plunger
An exhaust gas valve
A diaphragm housing
Whats the valve designed to do?

Control the exhaust

flow into the
intake manifold...


Basic EGR system operation...

At idle, the throttle plate in the

carburetor or fuel injection throttle body
is closed. This blocks off engine vacuum
so it cant act on the EGR valve. The
EGR spring holds the valve shut and
exhaust gases do NOT enter the intake

*****If the EGR valve were open at

idle, it could upset the air-fuel mixture
More about EGR system operation...

When the throttle plate is swung

open to increase speed, engine vacuum
is applied to the EGR hose. Vacuum
pulls the EGR diaphragm up. In turn,
the diaphragm pulls the valve open.
Engine exhaust can then enter the
intake manifold and combustion
chambers. At higher engine speeds,
there is enough air flowing into the
engine that the air-fuel mixture is not
Turbocharger and supercharger

Naturally aspirated engine

Atmospheric air is the only force that pushes air into the
intake manifold.

Forced Induction
Forcing additional air fuel mixture into the cylinders.
Two methods of forced induction
The power out put of an engine
depends upon the amount of air
inducted per unit time and the degree
of utilization of this air , and the
thermal efficiency of the engine.
Indicated engine Power
IP=P*L*A*n*K/60000 ..(1)
Where, IP= indicated power (kW)
P=indicated mean effective pressure(N/m2)
L=length of stroke
A= area of piston
n= no of power stroke, for 2-s engine-N and for 4-s engine
N/2, N= rpm
K= No of cylinders
Three possible methods utilized to increase the
air consumption of an engine are as follows :

Increasing the piston displacement: This

increases the size and weight of the engine,
and introduces additional cooling problems.

Running the engine at higher speeds: This

results in increased mechanical friction losses
and imposes greater inertia stresses on engine

Increasing the density of the charge: This

allows a greater mass of the charge to be
inducted into the same volume.
The most efficient method of increasing the power of an engine is by
supercharging, i.e. increasing the flow of air into the engine to enable
more fuel to be burnt.
A Supercharger is run by the mechanical drive, powered by engine
power .
A turbocharger uses the otherwise unused energy in the exhaust
gases to drive a turbine directly connected by a co-axial shaft to a
rotary compressor in the air intake system.

Supercharger turbocharger


Fig.1 Supercharger

Fig. 2 Turbocharger
Need of turbocharger and super charger

For ground installations, it is used to produce a gain in the

power out put of the engine.

For aircraft installations, in addition to produce a gain in

the power out put at sea-level, it also enables the engine to
maintain a higher power out put as altitude is increased.
Working principle of a turbocharger:

A turbocharger is a small radial fan pump driven by

the energy of the exhaust gases of an engine.
A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a
compressor on a shared shaft.
The turbine converts exhaust to rotational force,
which is in turn used to drive the compressor.
The compressor draws in ambient air and pumps it
in to the intake manifold at increased pressure,
resulting in a greater mass of air entering the
cylinders on each intake stroke.
Types of super charger:
Based on the use of
Centrifugal type
Roots type
Vane type

Components of turbocharger
Air compressor
Where the turbocharger is
located in the car

Two types of supercharger:

1.Roots type

2. Scroll or spiral type

Supercharger(Root type)
Supercharger(Scroll or spiral type)
Supercharger with intercooler

Turbocharger wastegate
To limit the boost pressure. It opens when boost
pressure reaches a preset maximum.

Turbocharger lag
This is the time the idling turbine needs to reach boost
Catalytic Converter
Catalytic Converter

Three-way catalytic converter - how does it work.mp4

Catalytic Converter
Catalytic Converter
Catalytic Converter
Catalytic Converter
Catalytic Converter
Catalytic Converter