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WATER

MANAGEMENT
- is the activity of planning, developing,
distributing and optimum use of water resources
under defined water polices and regulations. It
includes: management of water treatment of
drinking water, industrial water, sewage or
wastewater. management of water resources.
THE HYDROLOGIC
CYCLE
WHAT IS THE HYDROLOGIC
CYCLE?
Hydrologic Cycle is a sequence of conditions
through which water passes or circulates on
and below the earths surface and the
atmosphere. It is commonly known as the
water cycle.
THE
HYDROLO
GIC
CYCLE
THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
The hydrologic cycle begins with the evaporation of water from the
surface of the ocean. As moist air is lifted, it cools and water vapor
condenses to form clouds. Moisture is transported around the globe until
it returns to the surface as precipitation.
Once the water reaches the ground, one of two processes may occur;
1) some of the water may evaporate back into the atmosphere or
2) the water may penetrate the surface and become groundwater.
Groundwater either seeps its way to into the oceans, rivers, and
streams, or is released back into the atmosphere through transpiration.
The balance of water that remains on the earth's surface is runof, which
empties into lakes, rivers and streams and is carried back to the oceans,
where the cycle begins again.
HUMAN
INFLUENCES THE
HYDROLOGIC
CYCLE
HUMAN INFLUENCES THE HYDROLOGIC
CYCLE

WE INTERRUPT WATER FLOWS IN TWO MAJOR WAYS:

WITHDRAWALS
We take water out of the system to irrigate crops, to provide us with
drinking water and to carry out many of our industrial processes.

DISCHARGES
We add substances to the water intentionally or not. As precipitation
falls on the ground and moves into rivers and creeks, it picks up a whole
range of pollutants.
HUMAN INFLUENCES THE HYDROLOGIC
CYCLE

Major human processes afecting the water cycle on land. R = storage of water
in reservoirs; G = Groundwater mining; I = Irrigation; U = Urbanization; C =
Combustion; D = Deforestation; W = Wetlands.
HUMAN INFLUENCES THE HYDROLOGIC
CYCLE

DEFORESTATION - the removal of trees has local efects, as well


as regional efects on the hydrological cycle and to climate
change.

URBANIZATION - urbanization efects are dependent on


increased population, increased city density, and
increased paved areas. Increased demand for water
causes larger rates of extraction of groundwater and from
reservoirs.
HUMAN INFLUENCES THE HYDROLOGIC
CYCLE

IRRIGATION - is a method used to water farm land. Unfortunately it


removes water from rivers and can cause surface run-of and
leaching.

GROUNDWATER MINING - is the withdrawal or removal of


groundwater in excess of the natural recharge rate (or the
replenishment rate, from infiltration and underground
inflow).
HUMAN INFLUENCES THE HYDROLOGIC
CYCLE

IMPOUNDMENTS OF RESERVOIRS - Greatly reduces and


discharge of a river as storage is increased. Leads to
increased evaporation and therefore can alter rainfall patterns

COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL FUEL - the combustion of fossil


fuels into the atmosphere causes water to be released
along with carbon dioxide; water and CO2 are also
removed from the atmosphere as inorganic bicarbonate
and carbonate ions in the ocean.
KINDS OF WATER USE
KINDS OF WATER USE
KINDS OF WATER USE
AGRICULTURAL - it is estimated that 69% of worldwide water use is
for irrigation. in some areas of the world irrigation is necessary to
grow any crop at all, in other areas it permits more profitable crops
to be grown or enhances crop yield.
INDUSTRIAL - it is estimate that 15% of worldwide water use is
industrial. major industrial users include power plants, which use
water for cooling or as a power sources (i.e. hydroelectric plants), ore
and oil refineries, which use water in chemical processes, and
manufacturing plants, which us water as a solvent.
HOUSEHOLD - it is estimates that 15% of worldwide water uses is for
household purposes. these include it drinking water, bathing,
cooking sanitation, and gardening.
KINDS OF WATER USE
RECREATION - recreation water is usually a very small but
growing percentage of total water use. Recreation water use is
mostly tied to reservoirs. recreational users may reduce the
availability of water for other users at specific times and places.
ENVIRONMENTAL - explicit environmental water use is also a
very small but growing percentage of total water use.
Environmental water usage includes artificial wetlands, artificial
lakes intended to create wildlife habitat, fish ladders around
dams, and water releases from reservoirs timed to help fish
spawn.
KINDS AND
SOURCES OF
WATER POLLUTION
WATER
POLLUTION

Water Pollution is the contamination of water


bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and
groundwater). this form of environmental
degradation occurs when pollutants are directly
or indirectly discharged into water bodies without
adequate treatment to remove harmful
compounds.
KINDS OF WATER POLLUTION
Surface water includes natural water found on the earth's surface, like
rivers, lakes, lagoons and oceans. Hazardous substances coming into
contact with this surface water, dissolving or mixing physically with
the water can be called surface water pollution.
When humans apply pesticides and chemicals to soils, they are
washed deep into the ground by rainwater. This gets to underground
water, causing pollution underground.
In many communities in the world, people drink untreated water
(straight from a river or stream). Sometimes there is natural pollution
caused by microorganisms like viruses, bacteria and protozoa. This
natural pollution can cause fishes and other water life to die. They
can also cause serious illness to humans who drink from such waters.
Some pollutants do notdissolve in water as their molecules are too
big to mix between the watermolecules. This material is called
particulatematter and can often be a cause of water pollution.
KINDS OF WATER POLLUTION
Many industries and farmers work with chemicals that end up in water.
This is common with Point-source Pollution. These include chemicals
that are used to control weeds, insects and pests.

Microorganisms that live inwater feed on biodegradable substances.


When too much biodegradable material is added to water, the
number ofmicroorganisms increase and use up the available oxygen.
This is called oxygen depletion.
Nutrients are essential forplant growth and development. Many
nutrients are found in wastewater and fertilisers,and these can cause
excess weed and algae growth if large concentrations end upin
water.
Oil spills usually have only a localized efect on wildlife but can
spread for miles. The oil can cause the death to many fish and get
stuck to the feathers of seabirds causing them to lose their ability to
fly.
SOURCE OF WATER POLLUTION
DIRECT SOURCES - include effluent outfalls from factories,
refineries, waste treatment plants etc.. that emit fluids of varying
quality directly into urban water supplies. in the united states and
other countries, these practices are regulated, although this
doesn't mean that pollutants can't be found in these waters.
INDIRECT SOURCES - include contaminants that enter the water
supply from soils/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere
via rain water. Soils and groundwater contain the residue of human
agricultural practices (fertilizers, pesticides, etc..) and improperly
disposed of industrial wastes. atmospheric contaminants are also
derived from human practices (such as gaseous emissions from
automobiles, factories and even bakeries).
WATER PLANNING ISSUES
WATER PLANNING ISSUES
Intense urbanization, increasing the demand for water,
expanding the discharge of contaminated water
resources, while there is tremendous demand for water
for drinking and economic and social development
(Tucci, 2008).
Water stress and scarcity in many regions of the planet
due to alterations in availability and increased demand.
Poor infrastructure or infrastructure in a critical state in
many urban areas, with losses in the network of up to
30% after treatment.
WATER PLANNING ISSUES

Problems of stress and scarcity due to global changes


with extreme hydrological events increasing the human
population's vulnerability and compromising food
security (intense rains and intense periods of drought).
Problems caused by the lack of articulation and lack of
consistent actions of governability of water resources
and for environmental sustainability.