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The design of the training program can be
undertaken only when a clear training
objective has been produced.

Objective: what the trainees are expected to

be able to do at the end of their training.
The trainer analyzes his technical,
interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to
deliver quality content to trainers.

The trainees training design requires close

scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles.

Training climate comprises of ambience,

tone, feelings, positive perception for training
program, etc.

Trainees learning style the learning style,

age, experience, educational background of
trainees must be kept in mind.
The Kolb Learning Cycle
The Honey and Mumford Learning Styles
Training strategies the trainer translates it
into specific training areas and modules.

Training topics Trainers break the content

into headings, topics, ad modules.

Sequence the contents Contents are then

sequenced in a following manner:
From simple to complex
Topics are arranged in terms of their relative
From known to unknown
From specific to general
Dependent relationship
Training tactics The method selection depends
on the following factors:
Trainees background
Time allocated
Style preference of trainer
Level of competence of trainer
Availability of facilities and resources, etc

Support facilities It can be segregated into

printed and audio visual. The various
requirements in a training program are white
boards, flip charts, markers, etc.

Constraints The various constraints that lay in

the trainers mind are:
Accommodation, facilities and their availability
Furnishings and equipments
Design of the training, etc
1. Don't Worry About Whether Your Plan is
Perfect or Not -- The Plan is Guide, Not

2. Remember that Training and

Development is a Process
Training Learning on /
Methods / Evaluation
Goal Objectives Evidence Of
overall what you will what you will do evidence assessment and
results or be able to do as in order to produced during judgment on
capabilities a result of the achieve the your learning quality of
you hope to learning learning activities -- these evidence in order
attain by activities in this objectives, e.g., are results that to conclude
implementin plan, e.g., 1. complete a someone can see, whether you
g your 1. exhibit course in basic hear, feel, read, achieved the
training plan, required skills supervision smell, e.g., learning
e.g., in problem 2. address a 1. course grade objectives or not
1. pass solving and major problem 2. your written
supervisor decision that includes evaluation of your
qualification making making major problem solving
test 2. exhibit decisions and decision
required skills 3. delegate to a making
in delegation certain employee approaches
for one month 3. etc.
4. etc.
4. Following documents can greatly
improve the quality of training plan
Basic Requirements of Learners: To Learn,
You Must Be Willing to Grow, to
Experience, Growth Involves the Entire
Learner, Growth Requires Seeking
Ongoing Feedback
Suggestions to Enrich Any Training and
Development Plans
5. Determining Overall Goals in Training
6. Determining Learning Objectives and
7. Planning Implementation of Your Training
8. Planning Quality Control and Evaluation of
Your Training Plan and Experiences
9. Follow-Up After Completion of Your Plan
Elaboration Theory:
alternative to the part/whole
Relevant for complex tasks only.
Sequencing: Process of how to group and
order the content of training.
Topical Sequencing
Spiral Sequencing

1. Epitomising
2. Elaboration
Selection of actionable by senior managers

Competence Application Platform Facilitation of application

Training Success Ingredients

Practice exercises

Identification of competence Review of Application


Clarity of application
area Link to Performance Parameters
A training method is an instrument or a
technique that is used by a trainer to impart
training to the trainees, so as to meet and
fulfill the predetermined training objectives.

Types of training methods: -

On the Job Training methods
Off the Job Training methods
On the Job training is delivered to
employees while they perform their regular

Includes four critical training elements:-

Transfer of knowledge
Skill acquisition and practice
Coaching by an experienced provider
Assessment of performance
Job Rotation involves moving an employee
through a series of jobs so he/she can get
a good feel for the tasks that are
associated with different jobs.

For example, in Whirlpool, the

employees follow a nine month
rotation program through the
centers main R&D areas, spending a month or a
month and a half in each area.
In this, the learner follows a learning
process at work, usually with the
involvement of the manager or supervisor
using the real work projects.

In Adobe India, managers spend

several hours each week coaching
new employees, providing feedback on specific
tasks, and getting them settled in. In addition, a
buddy is assigned to each recruit. Employees
receive three to four hours of technical coaching
The purpose of mentoring is to provide the
more junior employee with guidance and a
clear understanding of how the organization
goes about its business. Has application in
higher level and more complex situations.

For example, HCL appoints mentors for groups of

five to eight employees, who hold discussions twice
a week. Senior manager are required to attend a
two day mentoring program and then to spend 10
to 20 percent of their time mentoring.
Projects require the trainees to do
something on the job which improves the
business as well as helps them learn about
the topic of training.

In ICICI Bank, employees are given practical

application of classroom learning, including live
projects, assignments, and on-the-job-training;
and certification based on project assessments
and tests.
Develop employees who can do many
different tasks.

It usually involve several related groups of skills

that allow the apprentice to practice a particular
trade where the apprentice works for and with
the senior skilled worker.
Here, the content is provided through
video-tape or computer based program.

At Evalueserve, In their first six months on the

job, new employees are required to complete an
average of forty-five hours of e-learning.
Programmed Is used in computer-based programs consisting of text, graphics and multimedia
Instruction enhancements that are stored in memory and connected to one another

Computer Based Training provided in part of whole through the use of a computer. CBT is the term
Training most often used in private industry or the government for training employees using
computer-assisted instruction.

Computer Managed Uses a computer to manage the administrative functions of training such as
Instruction registration, record keeping, scoring and grading.

Intelligent More advanced form of PI. Expert systems are used to run the tutoring aspect of the
Computer Assisted training, monitor trainee knowledge within a programmed knowledge model and
Instruction provide adaptive tutoring based on trainee responses.

Intelligent Tutoring Make use of artificial intelligence to provide tutoring more advanced than ICAI. ITS
system learns through trainee responses the best methods of facilitating the trainees
Simulations Provide a representation of a situation and the tasks to be performed in the situation.
Trainees perform the tasks presented to them by computer program and computer
program monitors their performance.

Virtual Reality Places the trainee in a simulated environment that is virtually same as the physical
environment. The trainee wears special equipment like head gear, gloves etc. which
control what trainee is able to see, feel and sense. Trainee learns by interacting with
objects in the electronic environment to achieve some goal.
It uses a strategy with focus on
knowledge, skills and attitudes
Consists of 4 steps:-
- Plan
- Present
- Trial
- Follow-Up
One way communication
presents training materials verbally
used when the goal is to present a great deal of
material to many people

In Wipro the companys training campus can educate 500

employees at a time and includes a library, classrooms, labs
and lecture halls. It employs 300 full-time
lecturers and hundreds of visiting professors
from local universities.
Very effective for basic skills training
Trainer shows trainees how to do something
Provide an opportunity to perform the tasks
being demonstrated
Emphasizes the trainee involvement
Trainees participate in a reality-based interactive activity
where they imitate actions required on the job.
Training becomes more reality based

Directly applies to job performed after training

Easy to retain what trainees have learned

Time consuming

Trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the
skills correctly

Satyam conducts five days business simulation program that exemplify

the key decisions required of a manager
Attempt to bring realistic decision making situation to the
Its just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. In this
method of training, the trainees are required to enact
defined roles on the basis of oral or written description
of a particular situation.

In TCS the recruit receives 13-15 days of training in accents, customer

service, sales, technical problem solving through a combination of
classroom training, and role plays.
Also known as In-tray method of training. The trainee is
presented with a pack of papers & files in a tray
containing administrative problems & is asked to take
decisions on these problems within a stipulated time.
The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with
one another.
The trainees are provided feedback on their
Presentan in depth description of a particular
problem an employee might encounter on the
job. The employee attempts to find and analyze
the problem, evaluate alternative courses of
action & decide what course of action would be
most satisfactory.

Evalueserve, which has hundreds classrooms and 300 on-

line training programs uses case studies to deliver
classroom training with the blend of other training
It consist of brief sketching out of an incident by the
instructor and assembled the material for a full length
case report
It is an excellent method for developing among trainees
understanding of how to obtain the right data for
studying a situation
Provides an opportunity to actually
experience some concepts of
management just as a manager would
experience them in the organizational
Combine several group methods: lectures, discussions, and
Group members are involved in the training
Trainer can use many methods as part of the seminar activity

Planning is time consuming
Trainer must skills in conducting a seminar
More time is needed to conduct seminar than any other

Ranbaxy has significantly increased its investment in training

over the last few years. The company holds weekly seminars,
poster presentation and encourages conference attendance.
The game is devised on a model of a business situation
The trainees are divided into groups
They make decisions just like these are made in real-
life situations. Decisions made by the groups are
evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are
fed back to the groups. The game goes on in several
rounds to take the time dimension into account.

ICICI Bank has introduced new game technology as

an integral part of its induction program. It uses four
on-line games to train new recruits. Recruits win
prizes by learning to provide timely services and
resolve issues.
Training Implementation
Putting the planned training program into action is called
implementation of training program.
The training program is implemented by ensuring that the
course ware , class setting , and staff are ready once the program
is scheduled to begin.

Training Policies
They can have value , if indicative of a real commitment to
training by:-
Reducing ambiguities over the main thrust of training
Enhancing the standing of training vis a vis other functions
with their policies
Being potential tool of selling training to the non believers
particularly in a highly structured and authoritarian organization.
Training Policies may include such items as:-
A Statement conforming the value of training to organizational
The obligations of the organisation to provide training
Conduct Training
Priorities or critical areas of implementation
Staff involved

Training plan
Typical general questions:-
1. What type of training is required ?
2. Why is it required ?
3. Who are the people involved ?
4. What are the most pressing or critical areas ?
5. How , when and where it will be carried out and by whom ?
Implementing Training
Following are the guidelines for conducting the designed
1)The trainer to be prepared mentally

2) Arranging the physical Environment

Seating Arrangement

3) Greeting participants and establishing rapport

Learn name of each student
Learners title
Friendly interaction
Personal Interview
Listen intently to learners comments and opinion
4) Acquiring the best from first 30 minutes

The trainer should start the class promptly at the

scheduled time.
The trainer should get to class before learners arrive, be
the last one leave
At the first class meeting , learner should pair up the
learners and have them get acquainted with one another
Circulate around the class as you talk or ask questions.
Let the learners know that learning material available
outside the class.
The trainer should vary his instructional technique.
The trainer should use familiar examples
The trainer should be prepared to use an alternate
approach if the one they have chosen seem to bog down.
5) Reviewing the agenda
The following information needs to be included:-
Content Outline
Description of the kind of training activities that the trainer has
The schedule
House keeping Information.
Inviting feedback on the agenda
Setting group norms
Controlling , timing and pacing
Getting the groups attention
Handling problematic situation
Organizing the presentation
Watching the body language
Making smooth linkages and transition between one topic and
the next
Conduct Training
The training methodology called for in the courseware is
brought to life by skillful trainers .
Different organisations use different terms to describe the
trainers, terms like Trainer , Instructor, Coach , Facilitator.
Brief Definition of major terms are as follows :-

Trainers :- Directs the growth of learners by making them

qualified or proficient in a skill or task.
Instructor :- Give knowledge or information or knowledge to
learners in a systematic manner.
Coach:- Instructs, Demonstrate , Directs , Guide, and prompts
learners. Generally concerned with methods rather than
Facilitator:- Makes it easier for learners to learn.
The three learning factors:-
1) Knowledge
2) Environment
3) Involvement Skill

Active Listening
Getting Feedback
Positive reinforcement
Non Verbal Behaviour
Transfer of Training

Transfer of training is the influence of

prior learning on performance in a new

Includes :- Importance of Task variation

Class room Technique

1)Do not put both hands in your pocket for long periods of
2) Do not wave a pointer around in the air
3) Do not lean on the podium for long period
4) Speak to the class and not to the training device
5) Listen intently to learners comments and opinion.

Psychological Factors in the learning environment

Maslows Hierarchy of needs
Self Transcendence
Self Actualisation
Belongingness and Love

A need higher in the hierarchy will become a motive of

Herzberg hygiene and Motivational factor

1) Working condition
2) Salary and Benefits
3) Supervision and Fellow workers

2) Advancement and Responsbility
3) Job challenge

Steps for finalizing Training Budget are as follows

1)Determine whether to be a profit center
2) Identify Budget items
3) Identify Cost of Budget items
4) Negotiate and revise budget
Evaluation: Systematic collection and
assessment of information for deciding how best
to utilize available training resources in order to
achieve organizational objectives.
The process of collecting the outcomes needed
to determine if training is effective.
E.g. General Communication, Inc. (GCI) is the
leading integrated, facilities-based
communications provider in Alaska, offering
local and long distance voice, cable, video, data,
and Internet communications services.
Evaluation proved out of 5 billing systems
Comverses Kenan FX Framework most suitable
to employees. (16 months)
Return on Investment
Tool for knowledge management
Horizontal or vertical promotion
Estimate likely growth
Establish new standards
Revising existing plans
Global Expansion
SENIOR Active Participation
Identify KSA of learners
MANAGER Liasion with line and
senior management

TRAINEE Take Interest and

support evaluation
What information must be collected?
Difficult to identify, quantify and calculate criteria
Subjectivity is more dominant than objectivity
Its very complex: difficult to ascertain exact
Evaluation will lead to criticism
Its quite costly
R-L-B-R Model




Level Evaluation Evaluation Examples of Relevance and
type (what description and evaluation practicability
is measured) features tools and
1 Reaction Learning experience: Feedback forms, Quick & easy
Did they like it? verbal reaction,
Was the material post training Not expensive to
relevant to their survey/ analyze
work? questionnaire

2 Learning Measures increase in Assessment tests, Simple for

KSA both before & interview or Quantifiable skills;
after observation Less easy for
complex learning

3 Behavior Implementation of Observation/ Co-operation of

learning Interview line manager

4 Results Effect on business & MIS Easy

environment by trainee Management Accountability for
Information individuals
Cost/Benefit Evaluation: compares monetary
cost of training to nonmonetary benefits.

Cost-effectiveness Evaluation: compares

monetary costs of training to financial benefits
accrued from training.
Cost Savings Analysis {Result (Monetary) Focus}
Utility Analysis

Improved Performance (U)= (N)(T)(Dt)(SDy)-C

N= no. of trainees
T= time the benefits will last
Dt= difference in performance between trained &
untrained groups (standard deviation
SDy= value of untrained groups performance (in
standard deviation units)
C= total cost of training the trained group
During mid 1990s IBM spent $1 billion for
training its employees
In 1999 it used e-learning tools that was
earlier restricted to IBMs newly recruited
managers & saved $166 million within one
year of implementation.
In 2001 figure rose to $350 million & ROI of
2284% was reported owing to positive e-
learning response.
Market for e-learning rose from $2.1 billion
in 2001 to $33.6 billion in 2005
Performance gap evaluation skills
Ability to evaluate results against
organizational goals
Standard setting skills
Expertise to assess impact on culture
Human performance improvement
intervention reviewing skills
Feedback skills
Reclamation Plan. Implemented TQM. Output
increased by 30% and cycle time decreased
by 94%.
Supplementary Advantages:
Profit sharing & morale was up
Grievances & waste products declined
1. Observation
2. Interview
3. Questionnaires: Two types- Open ended
and close ended.
4. Rating Scales: Likert type of five point
scale may be used.

E.g. I have found the session.

1 2 3 4 5

Very satisfactory Very dissatisfactory

Tests: Oral or written
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): vague picture or
ink blot.
Semantic Differential Scales: Number of 5 or 7-
point scales stretching between pairs of adjectives
with opposite meaning.
Activity Sampling
Self Diaries
Observation of specific incidents
Self recording of specific incidents
After every course.
With new course, after 3-6 months.
Annually when the organization is assessing
the success of its business plan.

E.g. Motorola: 360 degree appraisal

Texas Instrument: After 90 days automated
mail system
Please indicate your impression of the items listed
below. If it was highly favorable, circle 5. Not so
favorable, give your opinion - circle from 4 to 1.
1. The training met my expectations.
2. I will be able to apply the knowledge learned.
3. The training objectives for each topic were identified
and followed.
4. The materials distributed were pertinent and useful.
5. Members in my district will benefit from the
knowledge I gained.
Low High
12 3 45
1. The presenters were knowledgeable.
2. The quality of instruction was good.
3. The presentations were interesting and practical.
4. The presenters met the training objectives.
5. Good training aids and audio-visual aids were used.
6. Class participation and interaction were encouraged.
7. Adequate time was provided for attendee questions.
8. Staff were interested and addressed attendees
9. Did you receive timely, advance training information?
Low High
How do you rate the training overall?

The training will help me do my job better.

This training is worthwhile and should be

conducted on a
regular basis.

To what extent do you expect this meeting will

make a difference in the way you do your job?
1 2 3 4 5
No Difference Tremendous Difference
Which of the trainings presentations or topics were
the most useful to you?
Which of the training presentations or topics did you
find the least useful?
What presentations or topics were you expecting to
hear, but were not presented?
What items or activities would you like to see added
to this training?
Other Comments:
Please sign your name
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HRM Training Theory & Practice by Aparna Rai

Effective Training Systems, Strategies, and

Practices by P. Nick Blanchard & James W.
Thank You