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AGRICULTURAL & INDUSTRIAL

WASTE IN LOW COST BUILDING


CONSTRUCTION

Meghna 13606
Nikhileshwary 13623
Gunjan 13627
Gargi 13638
waste
Wastesareunwantedorunusablematerials.Wasteisanysubstance
whichisdiscardedafterprimaryuse,oritisworthless,defectiveandof
nouse.
Characteristics of waste
generation:
INDUSTRIAL WASTE ARICULTURAL WASTE
COMPONENTS COMPONENTS

Construction
Manufacturin Crops resides
fabrications Fertilizers and
Powerplants pest remains
Chemical plants
AGRICULTURAL WASTE
Wastesareproducedinlargequantitiesfromagro-basedindustries.
Theuseofthesewastematerialsinconstructionindustrywould
contributetowardsacleanerenvironment.
Italsoresultsinacosteffectiveconstructionmaterial
Thematerialwhicharemadeupofthewasteofagriculturalproduct
suchasricehusk,wheatfodder,sugarcanestopetc.
Agriculturalwastewearecoveringare:

o SUGERCANEBAGGASE
o RICEHUSK
o STRAWBALE
o COIRFIBRE
SUGERCANEBAGGASE
Bagasse is sugarcane fiber waste left after
juiceextraction.

Bagasse is a eco-friendly, sustainable,


renewableandbiodegradablefiberwhichis
produceatalowercost.

Sugarcaneisatree-freerenewableresource.

Source: Wikipedia,
google, BMTPC
PICTURE OF BAGGASE
www.ecomaterial.com
USESANDADVANTAGESOF
BAGGASES
Manyresearcheffortshaveexploredusingbagasseas
a renewablepower generationsource and for the
productionofbio-basedmaterials.

It is used as a primary fuel in sugar industries as a


burningmaterial,itsuppliesenoughheataccordingto
theirneed.

It is used for making boards known as Baggase


boardswhichresemblesPlywoodorParticleboard.

Goodinsulatingmaterial.

Economicallycheapthanotherboards. BAGGASE BOARD

Source: Wikipedia, google,


ThecostofbagasseboardisRs10-20persq.ft. BMTPC
COMPARISONBETWEENMDF
BOARDSANDBAGASSEBOARD
MDF BOARD BAGGASE BOARD

DURABILITY EXCELLENT VERY GOOD

WEATHER FAIR GOOD


RESISTANT

STRENGTH EXCELLENT EXCELLENT

FLATNESS EXCELLENT EXCELLENT

SURFACE VERY GOOD VERY GOOD


UNIFORMITY
ENVIRONMENT GOOD EXCELLENT
FRIENDLY

COST Rs 30-40/ft sq. Rs 10-20 / ft sq.


Source: Wikipedia, google,
RICEHUSK
The outermost cover of the paddy grain is
known as Rice husk, which is produced when
husk is removed from grain in the husking
stageofthericemill.
Andburningofthishuskleadstoproduction
of Rice husk ash (RHA), if the burning
processisincompleteCarbonizedricehuskis
obtained.
PICTURE OF RICE
Rice husks are a large by-product one ton is HUSK
produces per five ton of rice paddies, and it is
estimatedthat12milliontonsofhuskcouldbe Rice Burning Rice Carboni
husk of Rice husk sed
availableinIndia. husk ash Rice
husk

Source: Wikipedia, BMTPC, www.watershedmaterial.com


USESANDADVANTAGESOF
RICEHUSKANDRICEHUSKASH

Ricehuskisdifficulttoignite,thereforeitactsas
agoodinsulationmaterial.

It is highly resistant to moisture penetration and


fungaldecomposition.

Steel additive for quality steel in steel


production.
Usedinmanufacturingofbricksforconstruction.
RICE HUSK ASH
BRICK
ManufacturingofInsulatingpanels.

Source: Wikipedia, BMTPC,


Increased compressive and flexural
strengths.

Increaseddurability.

Reduced shrinkage due to particle


packing,makingconcretedenser.
RICE HUSK ASH
Thepriceofstandardricehuskbrick BRICK WALL
isRs2-6perblock.
Source: Wikipedia, BMTPC,
www.watershedmaterial.com
CLAY BRICK RICE HUSK BRICK
DURABILITY EXCELLENT VERY GOOD
BONED LIGHTLY DENSE
STRENGTH GOOD (35 kg/sq cm) GOOD ( 30 KG/SQ.CM )
COLOR AS PER SOIL COLOR UNIFORM COLOR LIKE
CEMENT

SURFACE UNIFORMITY VERY GOOD VERY GOOD


ENVIRONMENT GOOD EXCELLENT
FRIENDLY

POROUS MORE LESS


WEIGHT HEAVIER LIGHT
COST RS 5-10 PER BLOCK RS2-6 PER BLOCK
BAR GRAPHS
STRAWBALE

Straw bales is a by-product of the mechanical


harvestingandthreshingofgrain.

Straw-bale constructionis abuildingmethod that


usesbalesofstraw(commonlywheat,rice,ryeandoats
straw) as structural elements,building insulation, or
both.

STRAW BALE STRAW BALE


CONSTRUCTION Source: Wikipedia,
USESOFSTRAW
BALE
Straw bale is the most common waste product in
India that are burned but now a days it has been
usedasabuildingmaterial.

Duetopresenceofairinstrawitactasainsulating
material by this feature it has been used for the
constructingofinsulatingwall.

STRAW BALE
CONSTRUCTION Source: Wikipedia,
COIRFIBER
Coirfiberismadefromcoconuthusks,whichare
by-productsofindustriesthatusecoconuts.
Coir waste from coir fiber industries is washed,
heat-treated, screened and graded before being
processed into coco fiber products of various
granularity and denseness, which are then used
forhorticulturalandagriculturalapplicationsand
asindustrialabsorbent.

COIR FIBRE COIR FIBRE


ROLL Source: Wikipedia,
USESOFCOIRFIBER
Coirfiberaregenerallyusefortheroofing.

Brickofdrycoirfiberareveryusefulininsulatingwallsthatleads
tolowcostconstruction.

Coir fiber also used as the insulating mat which is a good


alternativeofmanyexpensiveinsulatingmaterialforflooring.

Incoirfiberroofingthecostreducesto60%ascomparedtoRCC
slab.

COIR FIBRE COIR FIBRE BRICK COIR FIBRE


FLOORING CONSTRUCTION
MUSHROOM WALLS FOR
INSULATION
Here, wall insulator and packing materials
using mycelium, a bacteria found in rotting
organisms like tree trunks and agricultural
byproducts.
If placed in a mold, these organic matters grow
to the desired shape within a couple of days,
and can then be stopped using a hot oven.
This is particularly useful because traditional
insulating and packing materials tend to be
non-biodegradable, or, in the case of asbestos,
poisonous.
BUILDING MATERIALS FROM
INDUSTRIAL WASTE
FLY ASH FROM THERMAL POWER
STATIONS
BLAST FURNACE SLAG FROM STEEL
PLANTS
MARBLE POLISHING WASTES
RED MUD FROM ALUMINIUM FACTORIES
BRICK, MORTAR AND CONCRETE WASTES
FROM DEMOLISHED BUILDINGS
NEWSPAPER WOOD
NAPPY ROOFING
RECY BLOCKS
FLY ASH
Production
Flyashisoneoftheresiduesgeneratedinthecombustionofcoal.
Flyash isgenerally capturedfromthechimneys ofcoal-firedpower
plants,andisoneof
two types of ash that jointly are known as coal ash; the other, bottom
ash,isremovedfrom
thebottomofcoalfurnaces.
Uses
Concreteproduction,asasubstitutematerialforPortlandcementand
sand.
Embankmentsandotherstructuralfills(usuallyforroadconstruction).
Stabilizationofsoftsoils.
Asaggregatesubstitutematerial(e.g.forbrickproduction).
FLY ASH BRICKS
CASE STUDY
Location of site : Nagamangalam,Trichi
No.ofUnits:100
Built-upofeachunit:172sq.ft.

Technologies/specifications:
Walling : Fly ash Solid Block Masonry

Roof/Floor : Filler slabs


Fillerslabs

Doors & Windows :


Pre-castRCCdoorframes
CompositeDoorShutters
ClayjaaliforVentilators

Fly ash Solid Block Clay Jaali


Masonry
GROUND GRANULATED
BLAST- FURNACE
SLAG(GGBFS OR GGBS)
Production
Intheproductionofiron,ironore,ironscraparechargedintoablastfurnace
alongwith
cokeforfuel.
Thecokeiscombustedtoproducecarbonmonoxide,whichreducestheironoreto
a
moltenironproduct.Thismoltenironproductcanbecastintoironproducts.
Blastfurnaceslagisanonmetalliccoproductproducedintheprocess.
Differentformsofslagproductareproduceddependingonthemethodusedto
coolthe
moltenslag.Theseproductsincludeair-cooledblastfurnaceslag(ACBFS),
expandedor
foamedslag,pelletizedslag,andgranulatedblastfurnaceslag.
Thelargest-volumeofrecycledmaterialusedasconstructionaggregateisblast
furnaceandsteelfurnaceslag.Blastfurnaceslagiseitherair-cooled(slowcoolingin
theopen)orgranulated(formedbyquenchingmoltenslaginwatertoformsand-sized
glass-likeparticles).Ifthegranulatedblastfurnaceslagaccessesfreelimeduring
hydration,itdevelopsstronghydrauliccementitiouspropertiesandcanpartly
substituteforportlandcementinconcrete.Steelfurnaceslagisalsoair-cooled.

Crushed and graded bsf Graded road base bsf Uncrushed blast
furnace slag
BFS (AIR-COOLED):
Uncrushed:fillandembankments(particularlyareassubjecttosevereloading,
suchasmainlinerailsystems),workingplatformsondifficultsitespavements,
wherebindingfinesareproducedbyrollingtobreaktheslagdowntofillthevoids
Graded road base:onitsownorblendedwithotherslagsand/orwithother
naturalrocksandsands
Crushed and graded:forconcreteaggregates,concretesand,glassinsulation
wool,filtermedium,anduseunderconcreteslabsasaplatform.

BOS (BASIC OXYGEN STEEL SLAG):


Blendingwithmanyotherproductssuchasgranulatedslag,flyashandlimeto
formpavementmaterial
Otherusesincludeskid-resistantasphaltaggregate,railballastasphalticconcrete
aggregate,soilconditioner,hardstandareasandunconfinedconstructionfill.
GBS (GRANULATED BFS) AND GGBS:

GBS (GRANULATED BFS) AND GGBS:


Cement:theprincipaluseisascement
replacement(whenground,GGBS),replacing
3050%ofPortlandCementin'normal'
concrete,butcanreplaceupto70%in
specialistapplicationssuchasmarine
concrete
Road making: ungroundGBScanbeusedas
abaselayermaterialinroadconstruction.
Fill material:becauseofitssand-liketexture,
itiseasytowork.Itsselfcementing
propertiescauseittosetupovertime.
Stabilizing binder:slagproductsareusedinastabilisedpavementfortheslowrateofthe
cementationprocess.Thepavementmaterialcanbereworkeduptotwodaysormoreafter
initialmixingdependingonthebinder,withoutreducingthefinalstrength.The
performanceofbothGBSandGGBSinstabilisationdependsonthedegreeoffinenessof
thematerial,whichinturnisamatterofeconomics..
.
Other uses includeglassmaking,concreteblockmanufacture,sportingfieldsub-base(for
drainage),filtrationmedium,reinforcedearthembankments,andminebackfillingandgrit-
blastingmediumrequiringfineetching.
RED MUD
Production
RedmudisasolidwasteproductoftheBayer
process,theprincipalindustrialmeansof
refiningbauxiteinordertoprovidealuminaas
rawmaterial.
Redmudiscomposedofamixtureofsolidand
metallicoxide.
Theredcolouriscausedbytheoxidisediron
present.
Uses
Redmudisusedasabinder
material.
Formakingfloorandwalltiles.
Colouredcompositionofconcrete.
Heavyclayproducts.
Redmudbricks.
Compositepanelsfordoorshutters.
SALIENT FAETURES
Environmentfriendlytechnology
Fruitfulutilizationofindustrialwastesuchas
Flyash,redmud
Energyefficientproductiontechnology
Productsstrongerthanwood
Weatherresistantanddurable
Termite,fungus,rot&rodentresistant
Fireresistant
Cheaperthannaturalwood
Lessmaintenancecost
3timesstrongerthanwood
WASTE MARBLE
DUST
Marblepowderisproducedfromthemarbleprocessingplantsduringthe
cutting,shapingandpolishing.

Duringthisprocess,about20-25%oftheprocessmarbleisturnintothe
powderform.Indiabeingthetopmostexporterofmarble,everyyearmillion
tonsofmarblewasteformprocessingplantsarereleased.

Thedisposalofthiswastemarbleonsoilscausesreductioninpermeabilityand
contaminatestheovergroundwaterwhendepositedalongcatchmentarea.

Thus,utilizingthesemarblewasteinconstructionindustryitselfwouldhelpto
protecttheenvironmentfromdumpsitesofmarbleandalsolimittheexcessive
miningofnaturalresourcesofsand.
USES
(1) STRUCTURAL FILL, SOIL STABILIZATION, AND ROAD
EMBANKMENTS
(1) Insiltysoil,thereis12percentincreaseinUnconfinedCompressive
Strengthwith10%marbledust
(2) Thereisa20%increaseinUnconfinedCompressiveStrengthwith30%
marbledust
(3) Thereisnoimprovementinclayeysoil

(2) As replacement of CEMENT


LIMESTONE
(3) Improvement in strength and
density of CONCRETE
(4)BondingmaterialforBRICKS
manufacturing replacin lime
WASTEMARBLEDUST
NEWSPAPER WOOD
This design comes froom Norway, where over 1m tonnes
of paper and cardboard are recycled every year.
The wood is created by rolling up paper and solvent-free
glue to create something not dissimilar to a log, then
chopping it into usable planks.
The wood can then be sealed so it's waterproof and flame-
retardant, and used to build anything you would normally
build with wood.
NAPPY ROOFING
Something can be salvaged from all those
nappies and sanitary products we throw away,
even though they're, well, really gross.
Special recycling plants separate out the
polymers from the organic waste, and these
polymers can then be used to create fibre-based
construction materials like the tiles.
RECY BLOCKS AS PARTITION
WALLS

Thesecolourfulbricksaremadefromold
plasticbags,whicharenotoriouslydifficultto
recycleinanyotherway.
Recycledbagsorplasticpackagingareplaced
inaheatmold,andforcedtogethertoformthe
blocks.
They'retoolightweighttoactasload-bearing
walls,butcanbeusedtodivideuproomsor
outdoorareas.
BLOOD BRICKS
Thisidearestsontheassumptionthatanimalblood
countsasawasteproduct.(This is a potentially
offensive idea but while carnivores are still munching
away, they're still wasting loads of animal blood,
especially in societies without industrialised food
production systems)
Bloodisoneofthestrongestbio-adhesivesoutthere,
asitcontainshighlevelsofprotein.
BritisharchitecturestudentJackMunroproposesusing
freeze-driedblood(whichcomesasapowder),mixed
withsandtoformapaste;thiscanthenbecastas
bricks. Sample of blood brick
Thiscouldbeespeciallyusefulinremotecommunities,
wherebloodfromanimalslaughterisplentiful,but
strongconstructionmaterialsarethinontheground.
BOTTLE BRICKS
Thisproposalisalittledifferent,asit
reliesonproducingaconsumergood
specificallysoitcanlaterbeusedasa
buildingmaterial.Lotsofcompaniesnow
makebottlesincuboidorother
tesselativeshapes,tomakethemeasierto
transport.
Butthepracticeofdoingsotocreate
constructionmaterialsactuallystarted
withbeercompanyHeinekeninthe
1960s.
Thebottleneckslotsintothebaseofthe
nextbottle,forminganinterlockingline.
PLASPHALT FOR
ROADS
Plasphalt is made up of grains of
plastic produced from unsorted
plastic waste, which replaces the
sand and gravel traditionally used
in asphalt production.

Itwas found that plasphalt roads


were far less vulnerable to wear
and tear than traditional asphalt,
because the asphalt emulsion
bonds better with the plastic than
with gravel or sand.
WINE CORK PANELS

Thesewallorfloortilesaremadeby
combiningrecycledgranulatedcork
withwholewinecorks,whichyoucan
seeasthoseoblongshapesinthetiles
above.
Thisisaprettyusefulidea,considering
theworldapparentlyconsumesaround
31.7bnbottlesofwineayear.
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