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Phonics in EYFS and KS1

*What is phonics?
*The Phases taught in EYFS
and KS1
*Teaching tricky words
*Activities and ideas of how to practise at
*Websites that are useful
Cracking the Code

26 letters of the alphabet

44 sounds in the English Language
(Jolly Phonic Letter Sound British
144 different ways we put letters
together to represent the sounds
So what should be taught?
Beginner readers should be taught four things:
grapheme-phoneme correspondence (that is,
the alphabetic code) in a clearly defined,
incremental sequence
to synthesise (blend) phonemes (sounds) in
order, all through a word, to read it
to segment words into their constituent
phonemes for spelling
that blending and segmenting are reversible
Ensuring childrens knowledge of a range of high
frequency and other words, such as most names
that do not conform with phonic rules
The Simple View of Reading


Good language Good word

comprehension, g
o recognition, good
poor word o language
recognition d
word poor good
Poor word Good word
recognition, poor recognition, poor
language p language
comprehension o comprehension
Phase 1
tuning into sounds (auditory

listening and remembering


(auditory memory and


talking about sounds

(developing vocabulary and

Aspect 1: Environmental sounds
Stories Walk around local area
Aspect 2: Instrumental sounds
Bag of instruments Add sound effects
Aspect 3: Body percussion
Action songs and rhymes
Aspect 4: Rhythm and rhyme
Rhyming stories What rhymes with?
Aspect 5: Alliteration
Having fun with names Story
Aspect 6: Voice sounds
Adding different voices to stories
Aspect 7: Oral blending and
Robot speech c-a-t and Put it together
Phase 2
introduces 19 grapheme-
phoneme correspondences
decoding and encoding taught
as reversible processes
as soon as children have a small
number of grapheme/ phoneme
correspondences, blending and
segmenting can start
tricky words: the, to, no, go, I

teaches 25 graphemes
children will be able to represent about 42
phonemes by a grapheme

continue to practice CVC blending and


application of their knowledge of blending and

segmenting to reading

learn to read some more tricky words

learn to spell some of these words

Phase 4
To consolidate all the learning in phases 2
and 3
No new GPCs (grapheme-phoneme
correspondence) to learn
Develops children's skills knowledge and
skills of blending and segmenting words with
adjacent consonants, e.g. stairs, tent, brain
Read and spell multi syllabic words e.g.
lunchbox, desktop
Tricky words
Phase 5
Purpose of this phase:
Learn new representations of vowel digraphs
learn in phase 3: ee ea, e-e, ie, ey, y
Alternative pronunciations for the graphemes
children already know: ow blow, cow
Develop ability to choose the appropriate
graphemes to represent phonemes when
reading and writing.
Tricky words
The 4 part lesson

Revisit and review

Read / blend
Spell / segment
Word structure
VC phase 2 on eat off

CVC phase 2 dog boat chick


CCVC phase trip train brought

4 &5

CVCC phase 4 tent paint yards

Sound buttons -
it am got
kick mess laptop
rain now shed
cook turnip join
clear shark pure
lightening powder march
Using phoneme frames segmenting for

1 2 3 4

sh ee p
c r a b
ea t
Teaching tricky words
Write the word on paper, cut out each letter and put
the word back together.
Write the word three times. Trace over it in different
Look, say, cover, visualise, write, check.
Play bingo with the words.
Small word inside the word
Write the word in a nonsense sentence.
Find words with similar patterns. e.g. the, them, they
Write the word, draw around the shape of the word
and cut out.
Can you add ing or s to any words.
Put words into alphabetical order.
Revisit and review
Pass the bag balls/pebbles/cards
with taught phonemes
Grapheme dice
Objects: say the phoneme - show it
on a phoneme fan, find the letter,
write it on the white board
Beach ball key word recognition
New teaching
Use real objects
Use puppets
Link to a title in a known text
Link to a characters name in a known
High quality poetry / rhyming texts
Link to known songs and rhymes
Link to words being used across the
Read / blend
Reading names
Book titles / using favourite books
Word match using cards and objects
Sound buttons
Tabards / full circle
Paired reading of words / word sorts
Spell / segment
Phoneme fingers
Letter tiles make words
Magnetic letters make words
Grapheme pebbles make words
Full circle
Whiteboards write words, phrase, sentence
(link to puppet, story title etc. where possible)
Sentences / silly sentences
Pace and progression
Age expectations:

By the end of reception children to have been taught and

know at least one way of representing each phoneme.
By the end of year 1 children to have been taught and
know alternative graphemes for each grapheme and
different pronunciations of the same grapheme and use
these to read and spell.
By year 2 children are applying their phonic knowledge
and recognising irregularities to spell more complex
words and notice spelling patterns.
Useful websites
BBC phonics