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MCTS Guide to Configuring

Microsoft Windows Server 2008

Active Directory

Chapter 8: Introduction to Windows

Describe networks using Windows terminology
Configure and troubleshoot TCP/IP protocols
Describe IPv6 addressing

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Windows Networking Terminology
Network media
Network Interface Card (NIC)
NIC driver
Hub or switch
Network protocol
Network connection
Network discovery

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The Network and Sharing Center
Can create network connections, view the status of
existing connections, and troubleshoot network
Additionally, you can enable and disable the
discovery of other computers on the network, and
configure folder sharing
Three sections:
The network map
Sharing and Discovery

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The Network Map
The network map displays a graphical view of the
network from your computers perspective
Upon connection to a network, Windows asks you
to select the type of network you are connecting to:
Home, Work, or Public
Based on this choice, Windows designates your
network as one of the following types:

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The Network Map (cont.)
Devices that run Windows Server 2003 or Windows
XP cant be placed on the map, because they lack
the necessary Link Layer Topology Discovery
(LLTD) protocol
Other reasons that a device cant be placed:
A computer running Vista connected to a network designated
as public
LLTD is disabled
Network discovery is turned off
Firewall settings on the computer or network are preventing
Windows from detecting the computer
The NIC drivers dont support LLTD

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The Network Map (cont.)

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The Sharing and Discovery Section
You can enable and disable the following functions
in the Sharing and Discovery section:
Network discovery
File sharing
Public folder sharing
Printer sharing
This section can also display information about
whats currently being shared on the computer

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The Tasks Section
The Tasks section has links to perform the following
View computers and devices
Connect to a network
Set up a connection or network
Manage network connections
Diagnose and repair

Activity 8-1: Working with the Network and Sharing Center, Pg. 326

TCP/IP Operation and Configuration
TCP/IP is the default network protocol installed on
Windows computers. Windows Server 2008 and
Win 7 have IPv4 and IPv6 installed by default
TCP/IP is a suite of protocols:
Domain Name System (DNS)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

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TCP/IP Communication
When a user opens a web page, a DNS request is sent to
resolve the website name to an IP address
Once the client has the IP address of the website, it then
determines whether the address is on the same network or a
different network
If the client is on the same network, the client requests the
MAC address of the Web server. If not, the client sends the
request for the Web page to a router or default gateway
Routers then forward the request to other routers, until the
request reaches a router connected to the Web servers

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IPv4 Address Configuration
IP addresses are 32-bit numbers divided into four 8-bit
values called octets, each octet can have a value from 0 to
Subnet masks are also 32-bit numbers, that serve to
determine how many bits are allocated to a network ID, and
how many are allocated to a host ID
When written in binary, 1s in the subnet mask that
correspond to bits in the IP address mean the matching bit
locations are part of the network ID = 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000000 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
Above shows 192.168.1 as the network ID, .0 as the host ID

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Assigning IP Address Classes
Three classes of IP addresses can be assigned:
Class A, Class B, or Class C

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IP Address Assignment Rules
Rules for IP address assignment
Every IP address configuration must have a subnet mask
All hosts on the same physical network must share the same
network ID in their IP addresses
All host IDs on the same network must be unique
You cant assign an IP address in which all the host ID bits are
binary 0
You cant assign an IP address in which all the host ID bits are
binary 1
Computers assigned different network IDs can communicate
only if a router is present to forward packets

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Configuring Multiple IP Addresses
Windows OSs allow assigning multiple IP
addresses to a single network connection, via
Advanced TCP/IP settings dialog box
Multiple IP addresses can be useful in these
The computer is hosting a service that must be accessed by
using different addresses
The computer is connected to a physical network that hosts
multiple IP networks

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Configuring the Default Gateway
A default gateway is almost always used in IP
The default gateway can not be in a network ID
outside of the hosts network ID
Just as you can configure multiple IP addresses,
multiple gateways can be configured
Windows attempts to select the gateway with the
best metric automatically
Metric is a value assigned to the gateway based on
the speed of the interface used to access the

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Using Multihomed Servers
A multihomed server has two or more NICs, each
attached to a different IP network
Each NIC requires its own IP address for the
network to which its connected
Reasons for this type of configuration:
A server is accessed by internal clients and external clients
A server provides resources for computers on multiple subnets
of the network
A server is configured as a router or VPN server
Multihomed servers can run into routing issues due
to multiple default gateways being configured
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Using the Route Command
Windows computers maintain a routing table that dictates
where a packet should be sent, based on the packets
destination address
Typing route print displays the routing table
Results are displayed in five columns:

Network Destination

Using the Route Command (cont.)

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IP Configuration Command-Line Tools
Other command line tools available to assist with
IP configuration:
Additional tools are available, but are generally
used to verify correct IP configuration settings and

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The Ping Command
Ping is used to test the connectivity between two
computers, by sending an ICMP Echo Request
If the destination receives the ICMP Echo Request
and can respond, itll reply with an ICMP Echo
Reply packet
Example: Reply from bytes=32 time=<1ms
To see the options available for the ping command,
type ping /? at the command prompt

The Ipconfig Command
Ipconfig is usually used to display a computers IP
address settings, but it can perform other tasks
based on the options given:

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The Arp Command
The Arp command displays or makes changes to
the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache,
which contains IP address MAC address pairs
Can add static ARP entries
Some options for ARP command:
-a, -g: displays current ARP entries
-d: deletes ARP entries
-s: adds a static ARP entry

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The Tracert Command
Usually called trace route because it displays the
route packets take between two computers
Works by sending out packets with a TTL value
starting at 1 and increases the value until the
destination is reached
Useful for troubleshooting the routing topology of a
complex network and finding bottlenecks

The Nslookup Command
Used to test and troubleshoot DNS operation
Can be used in command mode.
In command mode, you type nslookup host to
query for the hosts address.

Activity 8-3: Configuring a Second IP Address, Pg. 336-337

Activity 8-4: Using the ARP Command, Pg. 337-338
Activity 8-5: Using the Tracert Command, Pg. 338

Managing Protocols
Each network connection in Windows Server 2008 has
protocols and services associated with it
Services / protocols can be unbound (disabled) or bound
(enabled) to a connection in the connections Properties dialog
box, by selecting or deselecting the check box next to the
service or protocol
List of services / protocols
Client for Microsoft Networks
QoS Packet Scheduler
File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks
Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6)
Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)
Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper I/O Driver
Link-Layer Topology Discovery Responder

Activity 8-6: Disabling Services, Pg. 340-341
Network Bindings
By default, every installed service and protocol is bound to every
network connection
Protocol bindings can be rearranged by selecting the protocol to
be moved, and then by clicking the up or down arrows in the
Adapters and Bindings tab
Network connections are then
prioritized in the order shown under this tab.

Network Providers
A network provider is a software component that allows Windows
applications to connect to resources on other computers
Different OSs may require different procedures, which requires
different network providers
Network providers exist for Windows
networks, virtual networks (VMware),
Novell networks and Linux networks.
Performs actions such as making
and breaking network connections.

Activity 8-7: Changing the Binding Order, Pg. 343 28

Internet Protocol Version 6
Previous Windows OSs use a Dual-stack
architecture, meaning that IPv4 and IPv6 use
separate implementations of the protocols in the
TCP/IP suite
Windows Server 2008 and Win 7 use dual-IP layer
architecture, which means that the IP protocol is
the only component of the TCP/IP suite thats
different in IPv6

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Internet Protocol Version 6 (cont.)

Dual-stack architecture Dual-IP layer architecture

IPv6 Overview

IPv6 Address Structure
Subnetting as done in IPv4 is no longer applicable
Uses 128 bits, instead of IPv4s 32 bits, for an
IPv6 addresses are written as eight 16-bit
hexadecimal numbers separated by colons:
Things to note about IPv6 addresses:
One or more consecutive 0 values can be written as a double
colon, but only one double colon can exist in an IPv6 address
Leading 0s are optional
Addresses that start with fe80 are called link-local
addresses which is = to Private Addresses in IPv4.

Activity 8-8: Working with IPv6, Pg. 345-346

Chapter Summary
The Network and Sharing Center can view the status of
network connections and configure their properties
The network map is a visual representation of computers
and connecting devices in your network
TCP/IPv4, the predominant networking protocol in use today,
is actually a suite of protocols and services, such as DNS,
DHCP, TCP, IPv4, ICMP, and ARP, among others
TCP/IP communication is a multi-step process that often
involves the use of several different protocols in the TCP/IP

Chapter Summary (cont.)
An IP address is a 32-bit dotted decimal number divided into
four octets. Every IP address must have a subnet mask to
indicate which part of the address is the network ID and
which part is the host ID. Three IP classes exist: A, B, C
Subnetting uses a modified subnet mask to divide a large
network into smaller, more manageable networks
You can configure multiple IP addresses and default
gateways on a network connection.
Several command-line tools are available for checking status
and troubleshooting IP configuration, including Ping,
Ipconfig, Arp, Tracert, and Nslookup