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U.E.

P N 71-ISDR-Profesorado de Ingls
Enseanza y Aprendizaje de la Lengua
Extranjera para E.G.B y Polimodal

Fourth Assignment
Assessment and Evaluation

Teacher: Gisela, Snchez


Students names: Marisa, Goitia/
Lorena, Santa Cruz
ID n: 33.679.637 - 28.220.695
Due date: November,16th
MISTAKES AND FEEDBACK

JERMEY HARMER

CHAPTER 8
Mistakes
(Julian Edge divided into three categories)

Slips Errors Attempts

Mistakes which When a student


mistakes which they cant tries to say
students can
correct something but
correct themselves does not yet
once the mistakes themselves and
which therefore know the
has been pointed correct way of
out need
explanation saying it
Two distinct sources

L1 Interference Development errors


In a child language development, the child starts to over-
generalize a new rule that has been (subconsciously)
learnt, and, as a result, even makes mistakes with things
L1 and the variety of English students are that he /she seemed to have known before. When second-
learning come into contact with each other, language learners make this kind of errors, they are
there are often confusions which provoke demonstrating part of the natural process of language
errors in a learner's use of English. This can learning. Development errors are part of the students
be: at the level of sounds, at the level of inter-language, that is the version of the language which a
grammar, at the level of word usage. learner has at any one stage of development, and which is
Assessing students performance
Teachers assessing students Students assessing themselves

Assessment of performance can be Foster self-assessment. Involving them in


explicit (that was really good) or implicit assessment occurs when we ask:
(no comment or correction). Praise is a
vital component in a students A class Do you think thats right?
motivation and progress. George Petty At the end of and activity how well they
sees it as an element of a two-part think they have got on
response to sts work:
To give themselves marks or grades
medal is what we give sts for
Self-assessment through checklists
doing something well.
Self-assessment can be made more formal:
mission is the direction we give
them to improve. Ask sts to check what they can now do.
Students can measure themselves by
Avoid Over-complimenting . Over-praise
saying what they can do in various skill
may create praise junkies (become
areas.
attention seekers) . Give feedback on
what the sts say rather than on how (ROA)Record of achievement : self
they say it. Ways of assess our sts assessment of their success and
work: difficulties and how to proceed. Teacher
adds their own assessment of the sts
Comments: Commenting on sts
progress.
performance. Positive /Negative
assessment.
Marks and grades: subjective.
Reports: balance between positive
FEEDBACK DURNG ORAL WORK
Accuracy Non-communicative activities are intended to ensure correctness.
Fluency: Communicative activities are designed to improve language fluency.

Teacher intervention (a stage where the T stops the activity to make correction)
When teachers intervene to correct or to supply alternative modes of expression to help
students, they remove the need to negotiate meaning.

Lynch (1997) the best answer to the question of when intervene in a learner talk is: as
late as possible

Feedback during accuracy work Feedback during fluency work


Showing incorrectness Gentle correction: tact and discreet
Repeating: Again? ask sts to repeat what they intervention only if the communication breaks
have said. Use intonation and expression down. It can be offered in a n of ways:
Echoing: we repeat what sts have said
Statements and questions: good try, but Reformulate what the sts have said
thats not quite right/do people think thats Try not to interrupt the flow of the activities
right? Use other techniques for showing incorrectness
Expressions: facial expression or gestures such as echoing and expression
Hinting: give a quit hint. Say the word: tense,
plural. Share metalanguage. Recording mistakes: Use charts to categorize
Reformulation: teacher reformates the learners mistakes. (Grammar-word and
sentence. (gives a corrected version) phrases-pronunciation-appropriacy)

Getting it right: focus on the correct version After the event:


in more detail: Put mistakes on the board and ask sts to
Emphasizing the part where there is a problem. recognize the problem.
Say the incorrect part correctly (explain Give an assessment, saying how well they did in
grammar if necessary) it.
Take the sts to repeat the utterance correctly Getting sts to tell us what they found easiest
Foster peer correction: ask sts to help or and most difficult.
correct each other
FEEDBACK ON WRITTEN WORK

Workbook exercises

Feedback on more creative or


communicative writing: letters, reports,
stories or poems) Demonstrate interest in
the contest of students work
FEEDBACK WRITTEN TECHNIQUES
Responding:
We tell students how the text appears
to us and how successful we think it
has been and in which areas they have
improved or need to improve.
Constructive feedback: learning from
mistakes.

Correcting:
Many teachers use correction codes in the body of
the text or in the margin. Sts need to be trained in
their uses (introduce them to correction symbols).
Teacher can put ticks against good points and
underlining the problems. Write summarizing
comments at the end of the students work saying
what as appropriate and what needs correcting
FINISHING THE FEEDBACK PROCESS

o Written feedback is designed as a tool to help and


teach students how to improve their language use.

oThe importance of re-writing will show us how they


have responded to our comments

o Feedback is part of a learning process

o If students can identify the mistakes they have made,


they are then in a position to correct them. The feedback
process is only really finished once they have made this
changes. If they consult grammar books or dictionaries as a
way of resolving some of the mistakes we have signaled,
the feedback we have given has had a positive outcome
BURNING THE MIDNIGHT OIL

Why burn the midnight oil? Icy Lee (2005):

For students, the sight of their work


covered in corrections can cause a
great anxiety

For teachers, marking and


correcting take up an enormous
amount of time

Ways of varying the amount of marking and the way teachers


do it. These include:

Selective marking Different error codes

Dont mark all the papers Involve the students


TESTING AND EVALUATION

JEREMY HARMER

CHAPTER 22
TESTING AND ASSESSMENT
o Summative assessment is the kind of
measurement that takes place to
round things off or make a one-off
measurement. Such tests include. The
end-of year tests or the big public
exams.

o Formative assessment relates to


the kind of feedback teachers give
students as a course is progressing
and which may help them to
improve their performance. The
teacher can change the focus of the
curriculum or the emphasis of
certain lesson elements
Different types of testing
Four categories of test
Placement tests: this kind of test can be important to place students
in the appropriated class in a school. It tests grammar and vocabulary
knowledge and assess students productive and receptive skills.
Diagnostic tests: diagnostic tests can be used to expose learner
difficulties, gaps in their knowledge, and skill deficiencies during a
course

Progress or achievement test: these tests are designed to


measure learners language and skill progress in relation to the
syllabus they have been following.

Proficiency tests: these tests give a general picture of a students


knowledge and ability. They are used as stages people have to
reach if they want to be admitted to a foreign university, get a job,
or obtain some kind of certificate.
GOOD CHARCTERISTICS OF A
GOOD TEST
VALIDITY RELIABILITY

A good test should give


consistent results. in
practice, reliability is
enhanced by making the
test instructions
absolutely clear,
restricting the scope for
A test is valid if it tests what it is supposed to test
variety in the answers
(what it is essential for that stage of learning
process). It is not valid when a test requires
and making sure that
specialist knowledge about a subject that is known
for the students.
test conditions remain
constant.
Types of test item
Direct and Indirect test items
A test item is direct if it asks candidates to perform the communicative skill which
is being tested. Direct test items try to be as much like real-life language use as
possible. Examples: Create a level playing field, replicate real-life interaction
(Speaking, Writing, Reading, Listening that reflect real life.

Indirect test items, on the other hand, try to measure a students knowledge and
ability by getting at what lies beneath their receptive and productive skills. Indirect
items try to find out about a students language knowledge through more controlled
items, (such as multiple choice questions (MCQ), grammar transformation and
paraphrase, cloze procedures, sentence re-ordering - quicker to designed, easier to
mark, and produce grater scorer reliability)

Discrete-point testing tests one thing at a time (such as choose the correct tense
of a verb).

Integrative testing expects students to use a variety of language at any one given
time (witting a composition or doing a conversational oral test)

Proficiency test: it is a mixture of direct and indirect, discrete and integrative


testing. It gives an overall picture of student ability.

Placement test often use discrete-point testing to measure students against an


existing language syllabus.
Writing and marking tests
Writing test: Before designing a test we need to do:

Assess the test situation:


The context, where it will take place
and how much time the test should
be given.

Decide what to test:

List what we want to include. To


decide what skills or syllabus items to
include or exclude, what kind of
topics and situations are appropriate.
Writing and marking tests
Balance the elements

Balancing elements involves estimating how long we


want each section of the test to take. If we include
direct and indirect test items, we have to decide how
many of each we should put in our test

Weight the scores

It is important to decide how many marks are given to each


section of the test. If we give two marks for each of our ten
MCQ but only one mark for each of our ten transformation
items, it means that is more important for students to do
well in the former than in the latter

Make the test work.


We make necessary changes in individual items and/or the whole
tests based on our colleagues reactions and other students before
administrating them to real candidates
MARKING TESTS
Scorer subjectivity: Solutions

More than
Training
Analytic
Scoring and
profiles
one
interacting
score during oral tests Global ass
Teaching for Tests
oWhen students are being training for a public exam
(international exams) or school test, it is the teachers responsibility
not only to help them get their English to the level required, but also
familiarize them with the kinds of exam items they are likely to
encounter, and give them training in how to succeed. What worries
test designers and teacher is the washback or backwash effect, this
means that their teaching becomes dominated by the test and
items, they are stick rigidly to exam-format activities.
There are many number of thing we can do in an exam class.
First of all, teachers should train them for test types, showing the
different test types. After this, they could discuss general exam
skills, do practice tests, foster autonomy, provide fun and help
students to ignore the test.
The teachers hole is not just giving the test; it is also help
students to be prepared for it, providing tranquility, autonomy and
tools for them to do a good test.