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Mass Transfer in laminar Flow

Boundary Layer Flow on a Flat Plate

Consider the flow of a fluid (B) over a thin, flat plate parallel with the
direction of flow of the fluid upstream of the plate, as shown in Figure 3.14
Let the fluid velocity profile upstream of the plate be uniform at a free-
system velocity of uo.
As the fluid passes over the plate, the velocity ux in the direction of flow is
reduced to zero at the wall, which establishes a velocity profile due to drag.
At a certain distance z, normal to and out from the solid surface, the fluid
is 99% of uo.
This distance, which increases with
increasing distance x from the leading
edge of the plate, is defined as
the velocity boundary-layer thickness,
The buildup of this layer, the velocity profile in the layer, and the drag force can be
determined for laminar flow by solving the equations of continuity and motion (Navier-
Stokes equations) for the x-direction.

For a Newtonian fluid of constant density and viscosity, in the absence of pressure
gradients in the x- and y- (normal to the xzplane) directions, these equations for
the region of the boundary layer are:
The result in terms of a local friction factor, fx, a local shear stress at the wall,
w, and a local drag coefficient at the wall, CDx, is

Thus, the drag is greatest at the leading edge of the plate, where the Reynolds
number is smallest. Average values of the drag coefficient are obtained by
integrating (3-126) from X=0to L, giving
Mass Transfer in laminar Flow

Fully Developed Flow in a Straight , Circular tube

Figure 3.15 shows the formation and buildup of a laminar velocity boundary layer when a
fluid flows from a vessel into with a straight, circular tube.

At the entrance, plane a, the velocity profile is flat. A velocity boundary layer then begins to
build up as shown at planes b, c, and d. In this region, the central core outside
the boundary layer has a flat velocity profile where the flow is accelerated
over the entrance velocity.
Finally, at plane e, the boundary layer fills the tube. From here the velocity profile is fixed and the
flow is said to be fully developed. The distance from the plane a to plane e is the entry region.
For fully developed laminar flow in a straight, circular tube, by experiment, the Reynolds number,

2,100. For this condition, the equation of motion in the axial direction for horizontal flow and constant
properties is