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Grand topic: ANAMIA

Describe the structure and function of


haemoglobin.
State the normal values of
haemoglobin.
Haemoglobin:
Haemoglobin = haem + globin

Haem:
Heme contains a porphyrin molecule i.e protoporphyrin
IX with iron at its center.Protoporphyrin is composed of
4 pyrrol rings linked by metylene bridge to form
tetrapyrrol ring to which 4 methyl, 2 vinyl and 2
propionate side chain are attached.
Globin:
Globin contains 4 polypeptide chains, 2 chain
and 2 or 2 or 2 or 2E as per the type of
haemoglobin.

With each polypeptide chains one molecule of


haem is attached.
so a haemoglobin molecule has 4 haem
molecules.

The subunits are stabilized by hydophobic,


hydrogen bond and ionic bond.
Structure of
haemoglobin.

Primary structure: Linear in


structure
Secondary structure: Each globin
chain contains several helical
segments separated by short non-
coiled segments.

Tertiary structure:looped structure of


haemoglobin.
Quaternary structure of haemoglobin.

Haemoglobin tetramer has 2 identical


dimer ()1 and ()2.
2 forms
T-form = deoxy form
R-form = binding of oxygen to
haemoglobin.

Types of haemoglobin.
HbA1 22 90% HbF - 22 - <2%
HbA2 22 - <5% HbA1c
22-glucose - <5%
Functions of haemoglobin.

1. Transport of oxygen from lungs to


tissue.

2.Transport of CO2 and H+ from


tissues to lungs and kidney for
excretion.
Normal values of
haemoglobin.

Males = 14 16 g\dl of blood.

Females = 13 15 g\dl of blood.


Correlation

Anemia:
It is the condition where the total
haemoglobin content of the blood is
lower the lower limit of normal range.