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Indian Institute of Welding-

ANB
Refresher course : Module-06

Gas Welding, Brazing,


soldering and Cutting

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 1


Contents

Part-1 : Introduction
Part-2 : Welding & related processes
Part-3 : Brazing and soldering
Part-4 : Cutting & edge preparation
Part-5 : Plasma Cutting
Part-6 : Thermal Cutting Standards
Part-7 : Safety
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 2
Part-1

Introduction
Oxy-gas equipment

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Introduction

Oxy gas processes are based on


controlled combustion of fuel gas and
oxygen mixture, and consequent
generation of heat

Oxy gas processes are popular for


welding, brazing, soldering and cutting
of steel
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 4
Fuel Gases
Acetylene ( C2H2 )
Propane ( C3H8 )
LPG ( Mixture of propane and butane )
Methane (CH4 ) - Natural gas
Hydrogen ( H2 )
Propylene ( C3H6 )
Butane ( C4H10 )
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 5
Combustion Chemistry of Acetylene

Fuel gas + Oxygen = CO2 + H2 O


Acetylene C2 H2 + O2 = 2 CO + H2
4CO + 2H2 + 3O2 = 4 CO2 + 2H2 O
C2 H2 + 2.5O2 = 2 CO2 + H2 O
overall

However, maximum flame temperature for


Acetylene is reached at 55% oxygen stoichiometry

Actual oxygen to fuel gas ratios used are :


Acetylene 1.5 : 1

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 6


Fuel gases and their characteristics

Flame Heat of
Oxygen:FG Temperature combustion
Deg C MJ/m

Acetylene 2.5 3087 55

Propane 5 2526 104

Hydrogen 0.5 2660


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12 7
Types of flames

Correct mixture
Neutral Greenish, rounded
inner cone

Excess of O2
Oxidising Blueish, sharp
inner cone

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Types of Flames
For most applications, a neutral flame is used,
however some materials are different:
Welding brass, and bronze : Oxidising flame
Nickel, and alloys : Neutral to slightly
carburising (reducing)
Copper : Neutral to slightly carburising
(reducing)
Oxy-cutting : Neutral

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 9


Hottest point of flame

Acetylene = >3,000 deg C


Primary flame LPG = 2,826 deg C
(or inner cone)

Nozzle

Secondary flame (or outer cone)

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 10


Heating Effect of Fuel Gases

OXY OXY-LPG
ACETYLENE

HEAT CONCENTRATION HEAT CONCENTRATION

TOTAL 54,772 TOTAL 95,758 Kj/m3


Kj/m3 Primary 10,433
Primary 18,890 Secondary 85,325
Secondary 35,882 Flame temp 2,820 deg C
Flame Temp 3,160 deg 11
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates
C
Gas Equipment
CYLINDER
FLASHBACK
VALVE
ARRESTOR
OXYGEN
ACETYLENE REGULATOR
REGULATOR
FLASHBACK
ARRESTOR CUTTING
TORCH

WELDING
TORCH

OXYGEN AND FLASHBACK


ACETYLENE ARRESTORS
HOSES

ACETYLENE (OXYGEN CYLINDER


CYLINDER (PAINTED BLACK)

(PAINTED MATROON) T-CQ3


-2

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Cylinders
Max
Service Pressure Construction Connection Colour
(Kg)

Oxygen 150 Steel body RH Black

Steel body. Porous


kisselghur /Calcium
Dissolved
15 Silicate & acetone LH Maroon
Acetylene inside for dissolving
acetylene.

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Cylinder manifolds

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Part-2

Oxy-gas welding
and
related processes

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Gas Welding
Torch
Oxy-acetylene welding - commonly Tip
referred to as gas welding - is a
process based on the combustion of Filler
oxygen and acetylene.
Flame
Because steel melts at a temperature
greater than 1500oC, oxy-acetylene is
the only gas combination hot enough
to weld steel.

When mixed in the correct


proportions, an extremely hot flame is
produced with a temperature of
>3,000oC

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 16


Joint design for welding

Thickness Joint recommendation

< 4 mm No special preparation. Butt joint OK

No special preparation.
4-6 mm
Slight root opening recommended

Bevel of 35-45 deg


>6 mm Root upto 3 mm depending on plate
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 17
Welding techniques

Technique Suitability

Upto 3mm plate thickness


Forehand Pipe welding <10mm wall
thickness

Above 3mm plate thickness


Backhand Pipe welding >6 mm wall thickness 18
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates
Gas welding
FLAME
METAL FLUX FILLER
SETTING

Cast Steel Neutral No Steel

Steel Plate Neutral No Steel

Slightly
High Carbon Steel Yes Bronze
Oxidising

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Special techniques using oxy-fuel flame

Cleaning Fishtail burners are normally used

Large handheld heating blowpipes


are used. Custom built burners are
Preheating used which are configured as per
requirement for heating large
irregular areas.

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Part-3

Brazing and soldering

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Brazing
Economical for complex assemblies
Simple way to join for large joints
Excellent stress and heat distribution
Ability to join dissimilar metals
Ability to join non metals to metals
Ability to join different thickness parts
Joints require no finishing

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Principle of brazing

Parts must be joined


without melting
Melting point of filler metal
> 450 deg C
Molten filler metal must be
able to wet surface of base
metals
Capillary flow is the
dominant physical principle

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Brazing / Conditions of Wetting

Chemical affinity between the No Wetting


molecules of the solid base wetting
metal and the molten filler
metal.
Base metal surface must be
clean and active when the
molten filler makes contact with
it at the brazing temperature.
No wetting
There may be some diffusion
or alloying between the base
and the filler metal. For
spreading
Surface tension of molten 24
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates
filler should be low enough
Brazing / Types of Brazed Joints
Butt
Lap
Modifications of
butt and lap

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Brazing Processes
Brazing processes are classified based on
methods of heating:
Torch brazing
Furnace brazing
Induction brazing
Dip brazing
Resistant brazing
Infrared brazing

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Brazing Processes : Torch Brazing

Simplest and most widely


used process
Oxygen-fuel gas mixture
burned for heating
Matching filler alloy and flux
required
Usually used as a manual
process
Automation is possible

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 27


Furnace Brazing
Brazing is carried out inside a
furnace.
Fixturing / parts are assembled
before loading in the furnace.
Pre-placement of filler and flux
is necessary.
Vacuum or inert gas or special
atmosphere is possible
depending on the nature of the
base metal / job.
Batch/continuous production is
possible.
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 28
Induction Brazing

Heat generated by flow of


induced current

Frequency used commonly


from 1khz to 10khz. System
upto 450khz available

Assembly to be made by
self-locating or non-interfering
fixturing

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 29


Brazing Processes : Dip Brazing

Molten metal (filler) bath


Molten chemical (flux) bath
Pre-assembled parts are
dipped in the bath
Advantageous for
applications involving
multiple joints, complicated
shape and large areas
Suitable for Batch
production
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 30
Brazing Filler Alloys for General
Applications
Filler Alloy Melting Range C Applied to

Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd 595-700 Cu, Cu-alloys

Ag-Cu-Zn 680-850 Steel, SS


Silver Alloy

Ag-Cu-P 640-780

Ag-Cu 778-825

Cu-Zn 865-900 Cu, Cu-alloys


Copper Alloys
Cu-P 718-900 Steel

Alu-Alloys Al-Si 565-625


IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates
Al, Al alloys 31
Problems in brazing
Problems Causes

-Wrong filler -Poor fit-up


No flow
-Low temp. -Dirty parts
No wetting
-Too little flux -Bad vacuum

-Wrong filler -High temp.


Excess flow
-Excess filler -Time too long
or Excess wetting
-No stop-off -High temp.
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Braze-welding
Similar to fusion welding but the filler wire
melting point is lower than the parent metal.
No fusion of parent metal or capillary action
takes place.
Main difference between brazing & braze
welding is in the joint clearance.
Brazing generally requires a joint clearance
of 0.04-0.20mm. This allows the liquid
filler to be drawn between the two closely
fitted surfaces by capillary action.
Braze welding does not require such a
close fitting joint and hence larger
quantities of filler alloy are used.

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 33


Soldering

Parts must be joined without melting

Melting point of solder (filler) < 450 deg C

Molten solder must be able to wet surface of


base metals and flow by capillary action
between the surfaces to be joined.

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 34


Soldering methods
Method Application

manual working, low volume and


Air-FG torch
maintenance jobs

manual working, electrical &


Soldering iron
maintenance jobs

Furnace batch production and automation

Wave soldering automatic soldering of electronic PCB

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 35


Selection of flux for soldering
Rosin Organic Inorganic Special

Al & Al bronze

Brass
Copper
Steel/SS
Cast iron

Tin & Tin bronze


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Fluxes

Inorganic fluxes Organic fluxes

Zinc chloride Stearic acid

Ammonium chloride Oleic acid

Tin chloride Glutamic acid

HCl Hydrazine hydrobromide


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Solders
Solder Workpiece

Sn-Sb-Pb Copper, brass

Sn-Zn Aluminium

Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu SS, copper,

Cd-Ag Aluminium
Zn-Al Aluminium

Indium-Sn Glass to glass, glass to metal


IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 38
Brazing & Soldering - comparison

Brazing Soldering

Mech. strength Higher Lower

Working temp > 450oC < 450oC

Versatile Less More

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Part-4

Oxy-cutting and other


edge preparation
processes

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Various cutting processes
WATER
OXY PLASMA LASER ROUTER
JET

MS
SS
TITANIUM

ALUMINIUM

CERAMIC

RUBBER
41
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates

Oxygen cutting process
Job is preheated to cherry red (around 850C)
Release pure oxygen stream
The pure oxygen starts oxidation (ignition) of
the hot metal which is exothermic Helps
sustain reaction
Oxide produced is molten at that temperature
Kinetic energy of O2 removes molten oxide
producing kerf
These conditions are satisfied by Steel & Titanium.
Therefore these metals can be cut by this process
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Oxy-fuel gas cutting
Most widely used cutting
process
Can be used for cutting
MS and low alloy steels
Uses a wide range of fuel
gases acetylene, propane,
LPG, Methane, Hydrogen
Used in foundries for
cutting off runners and risers
Used for machine cutting
or hand cutting

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 43


Oxy-cutting Torch
Nozzle mix system
Torch head
Cutting oxygen
Heating oxygen
Acetylene

Mixed gas
Cutting oxygen
Cutting Nozzle
Pre-heat flame View from the bottom

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 44


Oxygen cutting
NOZZLE
FUEL GAS AND
PREHEAT OXYGEN
DIRECTION OF CUT MIXTURE

PRE-HEAT CUTTING OXYGEN


FLAME

CUTTING STREAM
DRAG
LINES
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 45
Drag Lines
As well as the roughness of the cut face, drag lines across the
surface of the cut can give the operator an indication if the cutting
speed is correct and the right cutting oxygen velocity is being
used.

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 46


Common defects in Oxy-cutting

DEFECTS CAUSES

Fluted cut
Low speed
-gouging at the bottom

Large preheat flame


Top edge melt
Oxygen pressure low

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 47


Common defects in Oxy-cutting
If the pre-heat temperature is too high it can have an effect on
the top edge of the cut. Too fierce a flame can cause melting of
the face or upper edge, this defect is called 'top edge melt'

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Common defects in Oxy-cutting
Example of a good quality cut

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 49


Effects of alloying elements

ALLOYING ELEMENT MAX LIMIT (%)

Carbon 0.3
Manganese 10
Silicon 2
Chromium 5
Nickel 3
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Effects of oxygen purity

17
SPEED / CONSUMPTION

5
O2 CONSUMPTION
15
0
12
5
10
(%)

0
75
50
CUTTING SPEED
2
510 99.5 99 98.5 9
0 8
O2 PURITY %

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 51


Cutting parameters
High speed vs standard nozzle

1.0
m/min

0.7 HIGH SPEED


5
CUTTING SPEED

0.5

0.2 STANDAR
5 D

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
PLATE THICKNESS mm > >
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 52
Plate Edge Preparation
Flame Planing Machine

Torch
CONTROLS Carriages

TBA

WORKPIECE

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Triple Burner Assembly
Direction of travel
3
2

Scrap

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54
Profile Cutting & Nesting
OPTIMISE PLATE UTILISATION

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Programming Station

CUSTOMERS
ORDER DESIGN

BOM DXF
FILES

FINISHED
GOODS PRODN PART TOOL PATH CNC
PLANNING LIBRARY NESTING GENERATION CUTTING

RAW PROGRAMMING
MATERIALS GRAPHIC
EDITOR
MIS MIS
STATION

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 56


Problems in Profile Cutting
PROCESS INFLUENCE:
THERMAL DISTORTION DURING CUTTING
START START BY UNCUT
PIERCING START
BRIDGE

SOLUTION: NOZZLE PATH CONTROL


IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 57
Adjusting Kerf
TORCH PATH
KERF FINISH START

COUNTER
CLOCKWIS
E TRAVEL KERF OFFST
= KERF
WIDTH ON RH
CLOCKWISE SIDE OF
TRAVEL TRAVEL

START
SCRAP
DESIRED JOB
DIMENSION
JOB

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 58


Kerf Setting

KERF

LEFT RIGHT

PROFIL
INSIDE CCW CW
E
OUTSID
E
CW CCW

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 59


Piercing
RETRACTION PIERCING SEQUENCES
(UPTO 40MM TK)

3-5 20-25
mm mm 3 4
1 2
Preheat Retract Release O2 Normal
& Move
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Part-5

Plasma and other


cutting processes

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 61


Plasma Cutting

Originally introduced in around 1950s for


non ferrous cutting
Often only method for non-ferrous and SS.
Suitable for profile or straight cutting
Suitable for Machine/hand cutting
Often used for cutting MS

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 62


Plasma cutting of MS
Advantage- high cutting speed at lower thickness
Produces a taper cut which is often not acceptable
Taper not prominent in thin sheets. Therefore, popular for
cutting sheet metal, using low priced air plasma.
May be used low thickness MS (upto 20mm) for speed
advantage, compromising quality
WI produces good quality cut at high speed upto 40mm
thickness, with insignificant taper
Suitable for profile/straight cutting
Suitable for machine cutting(high amps) or hand cutting (low
amps)
Normally used for square edge cutting but possible to cut V
edge with expensive equipment
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 63
Plasma cutting equipment

PLASMA
GAS
PLASMA
CUTTING
TORCH

SECONDARY
GAS
RECTIFIER HIGH
POWER FREQUENCY
SOURCE SOURCE
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Air plasma

Hot ionised gas stream = plasma


(Temp = 30-40 thousand degC)

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Dual flow plasma
-

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 66


Water injection plasma
-

Steam Layer

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Plasma cutting
CUT QUALITY

T-1>T-2>T-3>T-4
T-1

T-2
T3 WORKPIECE

T-4

TAPER CUT
SURFACE
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 68
Water Injection Plasma
Underwater cutting

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 69


Plasma Cutting parameters

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 70


Commonly used plasma gases
Open-arc WI
Plasma gas Secondary Plasma gas

Air
Nitrogen
Argon

Argon+Hydrogen

(60% + 40%)

Nitrogen

(99.999%) IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 71
Plasma cutting
Further refinements

WATER MUFFLER REDUCE UV, NOISE

UNDERWATER REDUCE UV, NOISE


CUTTING FURTHER

O2 PLASMA WITH FASTER CUTTING


WATER INJECTION OF MS

FINE PLASMA NARROW KERF


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Oxy vs plasma cutting of MS
OXY FUEL OPEN PLASMA WI-PLASMA

UV, IR, Noise Low V. High Contained

Max Thickness >200 30-50 30-50

Kerf 0.9-3 3 --
HAZ (mm) 0.6 0.4 --

Suitable for MS MS, SS, Alu, etc. MS, SS

Cut Squareness Good Acceptable < 6mm


IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates
Good 73
Water-jet cutting
High pressure (30-60 K PSI) water is forced through 0.1-
0.6 dia orifice
Efficiency increased by adding abrasive powder with
water
Generally effective upto 3mm thickness
Velocity achieved : 1700-3000 ft/sec
Can cut metals & non metals

Profile cutting possible using


CNC machine
Excellent cut quality
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 74
Water-jet cutting

Cutting of marble/ceramic by water-jet for architectural


applications. Note the inlay work on the floor

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 75


Laser cutting
The heat is provided by laser
Assist gas removes the
vaporised/molten material to
form the kerf
O2 used as assist gas for MS
cutting (1max) to improve
speed
CO2 Lasers are most popular
Can be used for profile cutting
Provides high quality clean
cut. Low HAZ

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 76


Laser Cutting
Possible to cut intricate shapes

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 77


Laser drilling
Various techniques of Laser drilling/micromachining

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 78


Laser drilling
Close up picture of Laser drilled hole 100uM dia
In Stainless Steel In Plastic (PVC)

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Laser drilling
Laser drilling rigs for petroleum exploration
-Swan Energy Inc, USA

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Performance comparison of
various cutting methods

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Other cutting processes
PROCESS APPLICATION

High alloy steel where normal


Powder cutting
oxy-cutting is not possible

Flame gouging Removal of weld deposit in MS

Scarfing Removal of surface defects in MS

Carbon arc Severing of MS,SS,CI, Bronze,


cutting/gouging Al/Mg alloys. Gouging.
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 82
Flame gouging nozzle

Pre-heat flame

Oxygen stream

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 83


Part-6

Thermal Cutting
Standards

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 84


Thermal cutting standards

Acceptance testing of Oxygen


cutting machines testing the
DIN EN 28206
accuracy and operational
characteristics

Classification of thermal cuts -


DIN EN ISO
Geometrical product spec and
9013
quality tolerances
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 85
DIN EN ISO 9013
1 2 3 4
Indication of quality of cut
surface & tolerance class
1 2 3 4

Main Perpendicularity/ Mean height


Tolerance
number of angularity of profile RZ5 class
standard tolerance, u

86
Roughness of
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates
Part-7

Safety

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 87


Safety in oxy-cutting & welding
PERSONAL PROTECTION

Protection Protection
Recommendation
of from

Use correct goggles


IR Radiation,
Eyes -shade # 3-6 for cutting
Spatter
-shade # 4-8 for welding

IR Radiation,
Skin Spatter, Wear leather gloves & apron
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 88
Safety in oxy-cutting & welding
USE OF ACETYLENE

Do not draw more than 15% acetylene content per

hour from a cylinder

Always use cylinder in upright position

Always use correct hose, regulator & fittings

Do not use oxy-acetylene torch in a closed space

Do not use copper piping/parts in acetylene line


IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 89
Safety in oxy-cutting & welding
BACKFIRE
Flame burns back inside torch, usually with a shrill
sound, or flame is extinguished with a loud pop.
Sustained flashback indicates something seriously
wrong. In the event of backfire:
Immediately shut of the oxygen supply, (otherwise
high pressure oxygen can get into low pressure FG
line causing mixed gas and explode).
Then shut off FG supply
Set the pressures correctly
Clean the nozzle and seat, start again
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 90
Safety in oxy-cutting & welding
Flashback
A flame and its pressure wave (75x gas pressure in bar) travel
back through the torch and into the gas system.
Flame
Symptoms
A bang Pressure MIXED
Wave GAS

Hose Direction of Flashback


Toward Regulator

Cause: Improper purging & pressures of O2 & DA lines.


The flame speed is too fast to be blocked by the check valve in
the hose and proceeds right past it through the hose. Use of
suitable Flash Back Arrestor recommended.
IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 91
Safety in brazing

For manual brazing safety requirements are


essentially same as in gas welding
Use goggles for eye protection (shade # 3-4
for gas brazing)
Additional safety measures must be taken
for protection against flux & toxic metal
vapours by assuring ventilation & respiratory
protection as required

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 92


Safety in soldering

Precautions for fire hazard, specially


when flame is used,

Use goggles for eye protection


(use shade # 1.5-3 for soldering with gas torch)

Ventilation to remove toxic metal &


chemical vapours,

Precaution from hot metal and burns.


IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 93
Safety in plasma cutting
To protect Protection from Recommendation

IR, UV Radiation, Use correct goggles


Eyes Spatter (shade # 8-14)

Skin IR, UV Radiation, Wear leather gloves


Spatter, Hot metal, Burn & apron

Apparel Spatter, Fire Wear apron

Ear Sound Use ear plug

Feet Spatter, Burn Wear safety shoes


IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 94
Eye protection

Gouging

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 95


Safety in Laser, Water Jet
Eye Use glasses

Fumes Use exhaust/ventilation


Lase
r
Electric
al Follow safety rules
safety

Sound Use ear plugs


Wat IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 96
Contributors to this presentation:

1) S. Ghoshal

1) Ranajoy Banerjee

IIW-ANB refresher course for Transition candidates 97


Thank You

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