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Chapter 3.1
First Impressions
Important to present an appearance that
inspires confidence & a positive self image
Within 20 seconds to 4 minutes, first
impressions are made
Rules for appearance vary with profession
Professional standards apply to most health
careers & should be observed to create a
positive impression
Good Health

Involves promoting health & preventing

Should have a healthy appearance
Diet well balanced meals
Rest provides energy & ability,
amount varies from person to person
Exercise maintains circulation, muscle
tone, helps attitude, helps sleep
Good Health (cont)
Good posture prevents fatigue, decreases
muscle strain. Demo standing & sitting
Avoid tobacco & drugs affects function of
circulatory system, heart, & digestive system.
Most facilities smoke-free
Avoid alcohol affects mental function &
decreases good decision-making, affects
many body systems. Can result in job loss

May be required
Clean, neat, well-fitting, wrinkle free
White/neutral undergarments under
white clothing
Avoid extreme styles
Find out what type & color of uniform is
required, then follow standards
established by employer

May wear in place of uniform if allowed

Clean, neat, good repair
Style should allow for body movement
Appropriate for position jeans?
Washable fabrics best
Name tags

Most facilities require use of name

badge or photo identification
States name, title, & department
In some facilities, name badge is
required by law

White shoes often required

Should fit & provide good support
Low heels best
Avoid tennis shoes & sandals
Clean daily & replace shoelaces
Avoid colored or patterned stockings
Personal hygiene
Health worker is in close contact with others
Control body odor daily shower, deodorant
use, good oral hygiene, clean undergarments
Avoid strong odors tobacco, perfume,
scented hairsprays, aftershave lotion
Certain scents can cause allergic reactions or
Keep short & clean
Long nails cause injury, puncture or tear
gloves, transmit microorganisms
Avoid colored polish conceals dirt, polish
chips off, flash of colors can bother an ill
If wearing polish, should be colorless
Use hand lotion to prevent chapping &
dryness caused by frequent handwashing

Clean & neat

Avoid fancy or extreme styles or
Pinned back & off of collar prevents
hair from touching pt, falling on trays or
equipment, avoids blocking vision
during a procedure
Usually not permitted with uniform
Can cause injury to pt & transmit pathogens
Can wear watch, wedding band, & small
pierced earrings NO hoops or dangling
Body jewelry (nose, eyebrow, tongue, lip
rings) detracts from professional appearance
& is prohibited at many facilities

Avoid excessive make-up

Should create natural appearance &
add to attractiveness

Chapter 3.2
Characteristics of a health care
Empathy ability to identify with &
understand another persons feelings,
situation, & motives.
Must have sincere interest in working with
Must care about & be able to communicate
Understand needs & learn effective
communication skills
Characteristics of a health care
Honesty truthfulness & integrity
Must be able to trust you at all times
Willing to admit mistakes so they can be corrected
Dependability accept the responsibility
required by your position
Prompt in reporting to work, good attendance
Perform assigned tasks on time & accurately
Characteristics of a health care
Willingness to learn willing to learn new
things & adapt to change
Due to research, new inventions, tech
Learning new techniques or getting additional
Lifelong learning required
Patience tolerant & understanding
Control your temper, count to 10
Deal with frustration & overcome obstacles
Characteristics of a health care
Acceptance of criticism willing to accept criticism
& learn from it
Pts, employers, co-workers, families
Some is constructive allows you to improve your work
Everyone can improve performance
Enthusiasm must enjoy your work & have a
positive attitude
Enthusiasm is contagious, helps you do your best &
encourages others to do the same
Concentrate on positive points so that negatives are not
so important
Characteristics of a health care
Self motivation ability to begin or follow through
with a task
Should be able to determine what needs to be done &
do them without constant direction
Set goals & work to reach them
Tact ability to say or do the kindest or most
fitting thing in a difficult situation
Everyone has a right to feelings & should not be
judged as right or wrong
Shows consideration for the feelings of others
Requires constant practice
Characteristics of health care
Competence qualified & capable of
performing a task
Follow instructions, use approved procedures
Strive for accuracy & know your limits
Ask for help if necessary
Responsibility willing to be held accountable
for your actions
Others rely on you, you will meet expectations
Do what you are supposed to do
Characteristics of health care
Discretion using good judgment in what you
say & do
Confidential information
Need proper authorization to get info
Be discreet, ensure that pts rights are not violated
Team player learn to work well with others
Each member of the team has different
responsibilities, but each must do his part
Working together accomplishes the goal faster
Characteristics of health care
All characteristics must be practiced &
Some take more time to develop than
Be aware of these characteristics &
strive to improve
If practiced, you will be a valuable asset
to your employer

Chapter 3.3
Part of an interdisciplinary health care team
Provides quality holistic care
Consists of many professionals, with different
educations, backgrounds, ideas, & interests
working together for the good of the pt.
What professionals might be involved in the
care of a surgical pt?
Each team member has an important job to do
Team working together = quality care given

Improves communication & continuity of

Pt knows the caregivers & support staff
All team members help identify needs,
offer opinions, participate in decision
making, & suggest others to help
Allows a pt to become more educated
about options & make informed decisions

person must understand the
team members individual roles
Knowledge provides a picture of the total
care plan
Helps clarify responsibility & establishes
Most teams have frequent PATIENT CARE
Pt may be an active participant

Importantmember of the team

Responsible for:
Organizing/coordinating activities
Encouraging new ideas & opinions
Motivating members to work towards goals
Assisting with problems
Monitoring progress
Providing reports & feedback
Good interpersonal relationships

Quality of care harmed by poor

interpersonal relationships between
team members
Team members have different cultural &
ethnic backgrounds, BE SENSITIVE
Treat others as you would want to be
Good interpersonal relationships
Maintaining positive attitude & laughing at yourself
Being friendly & cooperative
Assisting others when they need help
Listening carefully to others ideas
Respecting the opinions of others
Being open-minded & willing to compromise
Avoiding criticism of other team members
Learning good communication skills
Performing your duties to the best of your ability
Legal responsibilities
All members of the team must function within
legal boundaries
No team member should ever try to solve a
problem or perform a duty that is beyond the
range of duties permitted
Effective teamwork results from hard work,
patience, communication, & practice.
When every individual participates fully in the
team, the team achieves success

Chapter 3.4
Definition the skill or ability to encourage people to
work together & do their best to achieve common goals
Leader = One who leads or guides others, one who is
in charge or in command of others
Leaders are NOT born, they are developed by their
own efforts
Combine visions of excellence with the ability to inspire others
Anyone can be a leader
Promote positive changes that benefit profession
Every contributing member can be a leader
Characteristics of a leader
All characteristics can be learned
Respect rights, dignity, opinions, & ability of others
Understands democratic principles
Works with a group to guide toward goal
Understands own strengths/weakness
Self-confident & willing to take a stand
Communicates effectively
Self-initiative, willing to work, completes tasks,
optimistic, open-minded, compromises
Praises others & gives credit
Categories of leaders

Religious, political, club, organization,

business, community, experts, & peers
Leaders develop based on involvement
Any individual that joins an organization
can become a leader
Types of leaders

Encourages participation of all people in
decision-making or problem solving
Listens to others opinions & bases
decisions on what is best for the group
Guides individuals to a solution so the
groups can take responsibility for the
Types of leaders

Informal leader that strives for minimal
rules & regs
Allows individuals to function independently
Hands off policy, makes decisions only
when forced to
Laissez-faire means to let alone
Types of leaders

Often called dictator
Maintains total rule, makes all decisions,
has difficulty delegating or sharing duties
Seldom asks others opinions, emphasizes
discipline, expects others to follow direction
at all times
Individuals follow this leader out of fear of
punishment or extreme loyalty
All types of leadership have advantages &
Rarely, autocratic leader may be beneficial
Democratic leader is usually most effective
Remember to respect the rights & opinions of
others for effective leadership
Stress & Time

Chapter 3.5 3.6

Definition the bodys reaction to any
stimulus that requires a person to adjust to a
changing environment
Change always initiates stress, even if it is good
Stressors stimuli to change, alter behavior,
or adapt to a situation
Can be situations, events, or concepts
External vs. internal forces
External new job
Internal heart attack
Stressors cause
Body goes into an alarm mode
Called flight or fight response
Sympathetic nervous system works OT
Adrenaline released (hormone from adrenals)
Blood vessels to heart & brain dilate
Blood vessels to skin & internal organs constrict
Pupils in eye dilate
Saliva decreases
Heart beats faster, blood pressure rises, respiratory rate
Actions provide body with burst of energy & stamina
required to respond to stressor
After the stress is over
Parasympathetic nervous system works
Opposite reactions cause fatigue or exhaustion
while body recovers
If body is subjected to constant stress, normal
body functions are disrupted
Can result in serious illness or disease
Migraine headaches, anxiety reactions,
depression, allergies, asthma, digestive disorders,
hypertension, insomnia, heart disease

Everyone experiences
Amount of stress depends on the
individual reaction to & perception of the
Example blood test can be stressful for
some, but routine for another
Causes of stress
Job or school
Foods caffeine, salt, sweets
Illness & lifestyle
Family events birth, death, marriage, divorce
Overwork, boredom, negative feelings
Time limitations too much to do
Failure to achieve goals
Response to stressors

If stress causes positive feelings, it can

be helpful (achievement, excitement,
anticipation, etc)
If stress causes negative feelings, it can
be harmful (boredom, frustration,
irritability, anger, depression, distrust,
self-criticism, exhaustion)
Negative Stress
Can lead to substance abuse
Smoking, alcohol use, drug use, excessive
Trying to find comfort & escape from
negative feelings
Can lead to mental breakdown
Be aware of stressors & learn to control
Steps to control stress

Identify stressors
Awareness of stressor & how you deal with
it, can you change it?
Solve or eliminate the problem
Gather info, assess situation, identify
problem, list possible solutions, make a
plan, act on solution, evaluate results,
change solution if necessary
Managing stress

STOP immediately stop to break out

of stress response
BREATHE slow deep breath to relieve
REFLECT think about the problem &
cause of stress
CHOOSE decide how you want to
deal with the stress
Stress-reducing techniques
Live a healthy life diet, exercise, rest
Take a break from stressors
Take a warm bath
Escape to quiet music or book
Relieve tension slow deep breaths
Rely on others talk to a friend
Meditate & use imagery
Enjoy yourself & Renew yourself
Think positively
Develop outside interests
Seek assistance & delegate, say NO
Stress is a constant presence & cannot be
Be aware of causes & learn how to respond
when a stress reaction occurs
Solve problems effectively
Practice techniques to reduce the effect of
Patients also can experience stress as they
deal with their illness
Time Management
Definition a system of practical skills that
allow a person to use time in the most efficient
& productive way possible
Helps prevent or reduce stress
Puts individual in charge
Keeps things in perspective
Increases productivity
Uses time effectively
Improves enjoyment of activities
Provides time for relaxing & enjoying life
Steps of time management
Keep an activity record for several days
Determines how you use time
Activities that are performed, amount of time they take, how
effective activity was
Wasted time obvious
Now begin to organize time
Schedule important projects
Work when feel energetic, rest when feel fatigued
Set goals to help you find your direction
Short term & long term
Set effective goals accomplish not avoid
Prioritize & make sure goals are attainable
Steps of time management

Accomplish goals
Organize steps to help you accomplish
If goal achieved enjoy accomplishment
If goal not achieved evaluate &
determine why you failed
Unrealistic goal?
Lack skills or knowledge?
Another way to accomplish?
Failure can be positive
Time Management to meet goals
Analyze & prioritize
Review goals, list tasks to accomplish them most
important to least important
Delegate if necessary
Identify habits & preferences
Energy high vs energy low
Schedule tasks, make lists
Plan your work pace yourself
Avoid distractions screen calls, say no
Take credit for job well done
Time management
Provides for organized & efficient use of time
Things do not always go according to plan, even
with careful planning
Common events emergencies, new
assignments, complications, overscheduling
Determine the reason for failure if time
management doesnt work
Reevaluate goals & revise plan
Patience, practice, & an honest effort necessary
for success