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EAH 225

Mohd Remy Rozainy Mohd Arif Zainol

MASTER, 2008: USM

Water circulation

D2

AA AA

600

s

h

D11

s Submergence (a) (b) c

Floor

Class A:

A small dimple in

the free surface

Class B:

A more defined

dimple in the free

surface

Class C:

A well defined

cone

Class D:

A cone shaped

hole with air

bubbles breaking

away

Class E:

A continuous

passage of air

into pump suction

upstream

Flow

Surface vortex

Floor Type 5

Sidewall 1 Sidewall 2

(b)

Suction intake

downstream

(a) Subsurface

vortex

(c)

CFD: FLUENT

software

PhD, 2012: KYOTO

UNIVERSITY

DISSOLVE AIR FLOTATION (DAF) TANK

Raw

Water

+

Coagul

ant

Inlet Conta Separa

ct tion

Zone Zone

Clarifie

d

water

outlet

Saturat

ed air

inlet

THE COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD)

Consultation works

Graduate Assistant

School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus

November 2004 until 2008

1.Research Contract by Ebara Pump (M) Sdn Bhd Pump Model testing for Sg. Dua

Pumping Station Package 4, Penang.

2.Research contract by Ocean Electrical Engineering Co. Sdn Bhd Pump Sump

Modelling Test for Water Supply in Muda River Scheme.

3. Involved in consultancy work of Pump Sump model test for Gurun Pump Station.

4.Research Contract by Salcon Engineering Berhad Pump Sump Modelling Test for

Water Supply in Hilir Perak.

5.Research Contract By Era Pump Sdn Bhd Pump Sump Model Testing For Hulu

Terengganu Water Supply Project Stage 1

6. Involved in consultancy work of Pump Sump model test for Gurun Pump Station.

7.Research contract by Ocean Electrical Engineering Co. Sdn Bhd Inlet Channel Model

Testing for Lahar Tiang Pumping Station.

8.Involved in consultancy work of Pump Sump Physical Modeling (Joint Collaboration of

Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) and USM).

9.Research and Development Project on Physical Modeling Design Enhancement of

Tenom Station Trash Diverter, Sabah.

10. Involved in consultancy work of Pump Sump Physical Modeling (Pasir Mas, Kelantan)

Leonhard Euler

arguably the greatest mathematician of

the eighteenth century.

One of the most prolific writer of all

time; his publication list of 886 papers

and books fill about 90 volumes.

Remarkably, much of this output dates

from the last two decades of his life,

when he was totally blind.

Euler's prolific output caused a

tremendous problem of backlog: the St.

Petersburg Academy continued

publishing his work posthumously for

more than 30 years.

Theoretical and Rigorous Work of French

1750:Euler offered a memoir containing analysis and

equations for hydraulic turbines.

1754: An idealized theoretical application of Newtons

Law to centrifugal impellers.

Known as Euler Equation.

Did much to help the development of hydraulic machinery.

1767: Relation between Torque and Change in moment of

momentum of the fluid as it passed through the machine.

Applications of Eulers Equation

Wind turbines ---- Pumps --- Gas turbines.

Axial flow machines to Radial flow to Mixed flow.

Energy extraction machines Energy consuming

machines.

For a turbine the value of Equation is negative.

For pumps, fans, blowers and compressors it is positive.

Hydraulic energy Mechanical = Turbines

energy

energy

The thermodynamic Variations

Two main categories of turbo-machine are identified:

Firstly, those which absorb power to increase the fluid

pressure or head (fans, compressors and pumps);

Secondly, those that produce power by expanding fluid to

a lower pressure or head (hydraulic, steam and gas

turbines).

Incompressible Compressible

Fluid Fluid

Power Generating Hydraulic Turbines Steam/Gas/wind

Machines Turbines

Power Consuming Pumps/ Impeller Fan/blowers/

Machines Compressors

What is the difference between Compressible Fluids

and Incompressible Fluids?

pressure is applied, but incompressible fluids do not

change the volume.

The fluid dynamic calculations for the incompressible

fluids are very easy compared to the calculations involving

compressible fluids.

The most common example of compressible flow

concerns is the flow of gases (at low velocities), while the

flow of liquids may frequently be treated as

incompressible (under low pressure). If there is not a

significant change in density then flow as gases can be

treated as incompressible.

Fluid Dynamics of a Turbo-machine

A Turbo-machine

The Ancient Design : Undershot Water Wheel : 4000BC

SOME TYPES OF WIND TURBINES: HAWT

Various Types of Modern Turbomachine

Classification : Flow Path

nature of the flow path through the passages of the rotor.

When the path of the through-flow is wholly or mainly

parallel to the axis of rotation, the device is termed an

axial flow turbo-machine.

When the path of the through-flow is wholly or mainly in a

plane perpendicular to the rotation axis, the device is

termed a radial flow turbo-machine.

Mixed flow turbo-machines are widely used.

The term mixed flow refers to the direction of the through-

flow at rotor outlet when both radial and axial velocity

components are present in significant amounts.

video

https://www.yout https://www.yout

ube.com/watch?v= ube.com/watch?v=

oWHY5bxQGu4 BaEHVpKc-1Q

Turbine vs pump Centrifugal pump

https://www.youtu https://www.yout

be.com/watch?v=Jd ube.com/watch?v=

5BN7SPkqI ZlrFMmGs_NI

Pelton turbine Cavitation

Screw pump (Archemedies)

Screw pump has a structure same like a screw.

The whole construction of the spindle is like a

archimedes screw and this spindle is responsible for the

pumping action of the pump.

normally the screw pump is used

for pumping the high viscous fluids

or 2 - 3 fluid phases.

this pump requires least maintenances

and therefore, is a potential device for

increasing the pressure

Easy maintenance (no 'high skilled' staff required)

pumps instead of centrifugal pumps?

Slow Speed, Simple and Rugged design

Pumps raw water with heavy solids and floating debris

No collection sump required = minimum head

'Gentle handling' of biological flock

Long lifetime ( > 20-40 years)

Pump capacity is self-regulating with incoming level

Easy maintenance (no 'high skilled' staff required)

Can run without water

video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=1Nm0aaCZ4iY

Why So Many?

Why so many different types of

either pumps (impellers) or turbines

are in use ?

Is it due to (almost) infinite range of

service requirements?

As a fact, for a given set of

operating/resource requirements ,

there should be only one type of

pump or turbine which is best suited

to provide best/optimum

performance.

Classification of Turbo-machines

Two main categories of turbo-machine are identified:

Firstly, those which absorb power to increase the fluid

pressure or head (fans, compressors and pumps);

Secondly, those that produce power by expanding fluid to

a lower pressure or head (hydraulic, steam and gas

turbines).

(a) Francis turbine; Kaplan turbine and Impulse turbine

Kaplan turbine

Francis turbine

Impulse turbine

Classification : Flow Path

Francis Turbine

Impeller

Important Equations

Example

1. An inward flow reaction has inlet and outlet

diameters of 1.2 m and 0.6 m respectively. The

breadth at inlet is 0.25 m and at outlet it is 0.35

m. At a speed of rotation of 250rpm, the relative

velocity at entrance is 3.5 m/s and is radial.

Calculate the:

the tangent of the runner

ii) Discharge

iii) The velocity of flow at the outlet

Draw inlet and outlet of velocity triangle

try to calculate absolute velocity at

entrance

2.

Thank you for your kind

attention

Hydraulics Model Study

EAH 325

Similitude and Model Analysis

Similitude is a concept used in testing of Engineering Models.

hydraulic phenomenon.

small scale models, called model analysis.

towing basins, air planes in wind tunnel, hydraulic turbines,

centrifugal pumps, spillways of dams, river channels etc and to

study such phenomenon as the action of waves and tides on

beaches, soil erosion, and transportation of sediment etc.

Model Analysis

Model: is a small scale replica of the actual structure.

Prototype: the actual structure or machine.

Note: It is not necessary that the models should be smaller that

the prototype, they may be larger than prototype.

Lp

L

1

Lp L

m1

Fp Fp F F

m2

2 m1 m2

1 2

F L

Fp Lp

m3 m3

Prototype

3 3 Model

Model Analysis

Model Analysis is actually an experimental method of finding

solutions of complex flow problems.

The performance of the hydraulic structure can be predicted in advance

from its model.

Using dimensional analysis, a relationship between the variables

influencing a flow problem is obtained which help in conducting tests.

The merits of alternative design can be predicted with the help of

model analysis to adopt most economical, and safe design.

in advance, useful information about the performance of the

prototype only if a complete similarity exits between the

model and the prototype.

Similitude-Type of Similarities

Similitude: is defined as similarity between the model and

prototype in every respect, which mean model and prototype

have similar properties or model and prototype are completely

similar.

prototype.

Geometric Similarity

Kinematic Similarity

Dynamic Similarity

The principle of similarity

Three necessary conditions for complete similarity between

a model and a prototype.

(1) Geometric similaritythe model must be the same

shape as the prototype, but may be scaled by some

constant scale factor.

(2) Kinematic similaritythe velocity at any point in the

model flow must be proportional (by a constant scale

factor) to the velocity at the corresponding point in the

prototype flow

scale by a constant factor to corresponding forces in the

prototype flow (force-scale equivalence).

Kinematic similarity is

achieved when, at all

locations, the speed in the

model flow is proportional

to that at corresponding

locations in the prototype

flow, and points in the same

direction.

model and prototype is achieved only when there is

geometric, kinematic, and dynamic similarity.

Classification of Models

Undistorted or True Models:

similar to prototype or in other words if the scale ratio for

linear dimensions of the model and its prototype is same,

the models is called undistorted model. The behavior of

prototype can be easily predicted from the results of

undistorted or true model.

Distorted Models:

geometrically similar to its prototype. For distorted

models different scale ratios for linear dimension are

VIDEO

https://www.youtube.co https://www.youtube.com/w

m/watch? atch?v=UPQz2lwnk9k

v=VU7UEiO6ijA

Dam overflowing & hydraulic hydraulic jump

jump

Relationship between model and

prototype based

Model

on Froude Number

Prototype (actual)

Length F similarity

m F p

V /(g.Lm)

m

2

= Vp2/(g.Lp)

Lm = Lp/(Vm2/Vp2)

Lm = Lp/((Vp2/S)/Vp2)

Lm = Lp/S

Velocity Fm = Fp

Vm2/(g.Lm) = Vp2/(g.Lp)

Vm = (Vp.Vp.Lm/Lp)1/2

Vm = Vp/(S1/2)

Flow Fm = Fp

Qm = Lm.Lm.Qp/(Lp.Lp.S1/2)

Qm = Qp.Lp2/(S2.Lp.Lp.S1/2)

Qm = Qp/(S2S1/2)

Qm = Qp/(S2.5)

SCOPE OF WORKS

N T

T A undistorted model scale of 1/10th is

An

R considered and thus, model/prototype

PO

IM relationships as follows:

Qp

Qm 2.5

Length = 1:10 S

Velocity = 1: 3.16

1284

Flow = 1:316 Qm 2.5

10

Qm 4.06 L / s

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