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Hydraulics Model Study; Pump

Selection and Application

EAH 225
Mohd Remy Rozainy Mohd Arif Zainol

The surface and the volume mesh of the sump intake

upstream downstream upstream downstream

Water circulation



s Submergence (a) (b) c
Class A:

A small dimple in
the free surface

Class B:

A more defined
dimple in the free

Class C:

A well defined

Class D:

A cone shaped
hole with air
bubbles breaking

Class E:

A continuous
passage of air
into pump suction

Surface vortex

Floor Type 5
Sidewall 1 Sidewall 2


Suction intake

(a) Subsurface


PhD, 2012: KYOTO
Inlet Conta Separa
ct tion
Zone Zone
ed air
Consultation works
Graduate Assistant
School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus
November 2004 until 2008
1.Research Contract by Ebara Pump (M) Sdn Bhd Pump Model testing for Sg. Dua
Pumping Station Package 4, Penang.
2.Research contract by Ocean Electrical Engineering Co. Sdn Bhd Pump Sump
Modelling Test for Water Supply in Muda River Scheme.
3. Involved in consultancy work of Pump Sump model test for Gurun Pump Station.
4.Research Contract by Salcon Engineering Berhad Pump Sump Modelling Test for
Water Supply in Hilir Perak.
5.Research Contract By Era Pump Sdn Bhd Pump Sump Model Testing For Hulu
Terengganu Water Supply Project Stage 1
6. Involved in consultancy work of Pump Sump model test for Gurun Pump Station.
7.Research contract by Ocean Electrical Engineering Co. Sdn Bhd Inlet Channel Model
Testing for Lahar Tiang Pumping Station.
8.Involved in consultancy work of Pump Sump Physical Modeling (Joint Collaboration of
Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) and USM).
9.Research and Development Project on Physical Modeling Design Enhancement of
Tenom Station Trash Diverter, Sabah.
10. Involved in consultancy work of Pump Sump Physical Modeling (Pasir Mas, Kelantan)
Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) was

arguably the greatest mathematician of
the eighteenth century.
One of the most prolific writer of all
time; his publication list of 886 papers
and books fill about 90 volumes.
Remarkably, much of this output dates
from the last two decades of his life,
when he was totally blind.
Euler's prolific output caused a
tremendous problem of backlog: the St.
Petersburg Academy continued
publishing his work posthumously for
more than 30 years.
Theoretical and Rigorous Work of French

Bernoulli and Leonhard Euler.

1750:Euler offered a memoir containing analysis and
equations for hydraulic turbines.
1754: An idealized theoretical application of Newtons
Law to centrifugal impellers.
Known as Euler Equation.
Did much to help the development of hydraulic machinery.
1767: Relation between Torque and Change in moment of
momentum of the fluid as it passed through the machine.
Applications of Eulers Equation

Euler equation applies to all kinds of turbomachines.

Wind turbines ---- Pumps --- Gas turbines.
Axial flow machines to Radial flow to Mixed flow.
Energy extraction machines Energy consuming
For a turbine the value of Equation is negative.
For pumps, fans, blowers and compressors it is positive.
Hydraulic energy Mechanical = Turbines

Mechanical energy Hydraulic = Pumps

The thermodynamic Variations
Two main categories of turbo-machine are identified:
Firstly, those which absorb power to increase the fluid
pressure or head (fans, compressors and pumps);
Secondly, those that produce power by expanding fluid to
a lower pressure or head (hydraulic, steam and gas

Incompressible Compressible
Fluid Fluid
Power Generating Hydraulic Turbines Steam/Gas/wind
Machines Turbines
Power Consuming Pumps/ Impeller Fan/blowers/
Machines Compressors
What is the difference between Compressible Fluids
and Incompressible Fluids?

Compressible fluids reduce in volume when an external

pressure is applied, but incompressible fluids do not
change the volume.
The fluid dynamic calculations for the incompressible
fluids are very easy compared to the calculations involving
compressible fluids.
The most common example of compressible flow
concerns is the flow of gases (at low velocities), while the
flow of liquids may frequently be treated as
incompressible (under low pressure). If there is not a
significant change in density then flow as gases can be
treated as incompressible.
Fluid Dynamics of a Turbo-machine

A Turbo-machine
The Ancient Design : Undershot Water Wheel : 4000BC
Various Types of Modern Turbomachine
Classification : Flow Path

Turbo-machines are further categorised according to the

nature of the flow path through the passages of the rotor.
When the path of the through-flow is wholly or mainly
parallel to the axis of rotation, the device is termed an
axial flow turbo-machine.
When the path of the through-flow is wholly or mainly in a
plane perpendicular to the rotation axis, the device is
termed a radial flow turbo-machine.
Mixed flow turbo-machines are widely used.
The term mixed flow refers to the direction of the through-
flow at rotor outlet when both radial and axial velocity
components are present in significant amounts.
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Turbine vs pump Centrifugal pump

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Pelton turbine Cavitation
Screw pump (Archemedies)
Screw pump has a structure same like a screw.
The whole construction of the spindle is like a
archimedes screw and this spindle is responsible for the
pumping action of the pump.
normally the screw pump is used
for pumping the high viscous fluids
or 2 - 3 fluid phases.
this pump requires least maintenances
and therefore, is a potential device for
increasing the pressure
Easy maintenance (no 'high skilled' staff required)

Why do engineers select screw

pumps instead of centrifugal pumps?
Slow Speed, Simple and Rugged design
Pumps raw water with heavy solids and floating debris
No collection sump required = minimum head
'Gentle handling' of biological flock
Long lifetime ( > 20-40 years)
Pump capacity is self-regulating with incoming level
Easy maintenance (no 'high skilled' staff required)
Can run without water
Why So Many?
Why so many different types of
either pumps (impellers) or turbines
are in use ?
Is it due to (almost) infinite range of
service requirements?
As a fact, for a given set of
operating/resource requirements ,
there should be only one type of
pump or turbine which is best suited
to provide best/optimum
Classification of Turbo-machines
Two main categories of turbo-machine are identified:
Firstly, those which absorb power to increase the fluid
pressure or head (fans, compressors and pumps);
Secondly, those that produce power by expanding fluid to
a lower pressure or head (hydraulic, steam and gas
(a) Francis turbine; Kaplan turbine and Impulse turbine
Kaplan turbine
Francis turbine

Impulse turbine
Classification : Flow Path
Francis Turbine
Important Equations
1. An inward flow reaction has inlet and outlet
diameters of 1.2 m and 0.6 m respectively. The
breadth at inlet is 0.25 m and at outlet it is 0.35
m. At a speed of rotation of 250rpm, the relative
velocity at entrance is 3.5 m/s and is radial.
Calculate the:

i) Absolute velocity at entrance and the inclination to

the tangent of the runner
ii) Discharge
iii) The velocity of flow at the outlet
Draw inlet and outlet of velocity triangle

From inlet and outlet velocity triangle

try to calculate absolute velocity at
Thank you for your kind
Hydraulics Model Study
EAH 325

Mohd Remy Rozainy Mohd Arif Zainol

Similitude and Model Analysis
Similitude is a concept used in testing of Engineering Models.

Usually, it is impossible to obtain a pure theoretical solution of

hydraulic phenomenon.

Therefore experimental investigations are often performed on

small scale models, called model analysis.

A few examples, where models may be used are ships in

towing basins, air planes in wind tunnel, hydraulic turbines,
centrifugal pumps, spillways of dams, river channels etc and to
study such phenomenon as the action of waves and tides on
beaches, soil erosion, and transportation of sediment etc.
Model Analysis
Model: is a small scale replica of the actual structure.
Prototype: the actual structure or machine.
Note: It is not necessary that the models should be smaller that
the prototype, they may be larger than prototype.

Lp L
Fp Fp F F
2 m1 m2
1 2
Fp Lp
m3 m3
3 3 Model
Model Analysis
Model Analysis is actually an experimental method of finding
solutions of complex flow problems.

The followings are the advantages of the model analysis

The performance of the hydraulic structure can be predicted in advance
from its model.
Using dimensional analysis, a relationship between the variables
influencing a flow problem is obtained which help in conducting tests.
The merits of alternative design can be predicted with the help of
model analysis to adopt most economical, and safe design.

Note: Test performed on models can be utilized for obtaining,

in advance, useful information about the performance of the
prototype only if a complete similarity exits between the
model and the prototype.
Similitude-Type of Similarities
Similitude: is defined as similarity between the model and
prototype in every respect, which mean model and prototype
have similar properties or model and prototype are completely

Three types of similarities must exist between model and


Geometric Similarity
Kinematic Similarity
Dynamic Similarity
The principle of similarity
Three necessary conditions for complete similarity between
a model and a prototype.
(1) Geometric similaritythe model must be the same
shape as the prototype, but may be scaled by some
constant scale factor.
(2) Kinematic similaritythe velocity at any point in the
model flow must be proportional (by a constant scale
factor) to the velocity at the corresponding point in the
prototype flow

(3) Dynamic similarityWhen all forces in the model flow

scale by a constant factor to corresponding forces in the
prototype flow (force-scale equivalence).
Kinematic similarity is
achieved when, at all
locations, the speed in the
model flow is proportional
to that at corresponding
locations in the prototype
flow, and points in the same

In a general flow field, complete similarity between a

model and prototype is achieved only when there is
geometric, kinematic, and dynamic similarity.
Classification of Models

are those which are geometrically

Undistorted or True Models:
similar to prototype or in other words if the scale ratio for
linear dimensions of the model and its prototype is same,
the models is called undistorted model. The behavior of
prototype can be easily predicted from the results of
undistorted or true model.

A model is said to be distorted if it is not

Distorted Models:
geometrically similar to its prototype. For distorted
models different scale ratios for linear dimension are
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Dam overflowing & hydraulic hydraulic jump

Mengkuang Dam Spillway

Relationship between model and
prototype based
on Froude Number
Prototype (actual)
Length F similarity
m F p
V /(g.Lm)
= Vp2/(g.Lp)
Lm = Lp/(Vm2/Vp2)
Lm = Lp/((Vp2/S)/Vp2)
Lm = Lp/S
Velocity Fm = Fp
Vm2/(g.Lm) = Vp2/(g.Lp)
Vm = (Vp.Vp.Lm/Lp)1/2
Vm = Vp/(S1/2)
Flow Fm = Fp
Qm = Lm.Lm.Qp/(Lp.Lp.S1/2)
Qm = Qp.Lp2/(S2.Lp.Lp.S1/2)
Qm = Qp/(S2S1/2)
Qm = Qp/(S2.5)
T A undistorted model scale of 1/10th is
R considered and thus, model/prototype
IM relationships as follows:

Qm 2.5
Length = 1:10 S
Velocity = 1: 3.16
Flow = 1:316 Qm 2.5
Qm 4.06 L / s