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An Introduction to Power Quality

By:

Hossein Mahdinia Roudsari

What is a Power Quality Problem?

Any occurrence manifested in voltage, current, or frequency deviations that results in failure or mis-operation of end-use equipment.”

Dictionary
Dictionary

What does that mean?

It’s dependant on your susceptibility.

Given the quality of supply do I have to worry about problems with my equipment or systems?

Typical Financial Loss Per Event

Industry

Typical Loss

Financial

$6,000,000/event

Semi-conductor mfg.

$3,800,000/event

Computer operations

$750,000/event

Telecommunications

$30,000/minute

Data processing

$10,000/minute

Steel/heavy mfg.

$300,000/event

Plastics

$10,000-15,000/event

Source: The Cost of Power Quality, Copper Development Association, March, 2001

Sources Of Power Problems

Referenced at the utility PCC (point of common coupling)

Utility

• lightning, PF correction caps, faults, switching • impact from other customers

Internal to the facility

• individual load characteristics, motors, ASDs • computers, microprocessors • wiring • changing loads

Sources Of Power Problems Referenced at the utility PCC (point of common coupling) • Utility •
Sources Of Power Problems Referenced at the utility PCC (point of common coupling) • Utility •

Typically, 70% of all PQ events are generated within the facility

Types Of Power Quality Disturbances

(per IEEE 1159)

•Transients •RMS Variations

•Short Duration Variations •Long Duration Variations •Sustained

•Waveform Distortion

•DC Offset •Harmonics •Interharmonics •Notching

•Voltage Fluctuations •Power Frequency Variations

Types of Power Quality Problems

Types of Power Quality Problems

What is a Transient?

Momentary (& undesirable) high frequency sub- cycle “event” Usually measured in microseconds May also be called a Spike, Surge or Impulse Characteristics of a Transient:

• Rise time (dv/dt) • Ring frequency • Point-on-wave • Multiple zero crossings • Magnitude

What is a Transient? Momentary (& undesirable) high frequency sub- cycle “event” • Usually measured in

Transients

Unipolar Oscillatory Bipolar Notching Positive 200 100 0 -100 -200
Unipolar
Oscillatory
Bipolar
Notching
Positive
200
100
0
-100
-200

Negative

Multiple Zero Crossings

A transient power quality event has occurred on DataNode H09_5530. The event occurred at 10-16-2001 05:03:36 on phase A. Characteristics were Mag = 478.V (1.22pu), Max Deviation (Peak-to-Peak) = 271.V

(0.69pu), Dur = 0.006 s (0.35 cyc.), Frequency = 1,568. Hz, Category =

Upstream Capacitor Switching

3

Transients

Possible Causes

• PF cap energization • Lightning • Loose connection • Load or source switching • RF burst

Possible Effects

• Data corruption • Equipment damage • Data transmission errors • Intermittent equipment operation • Reduced equipment life • Irreproducible problems

What is an RMS Variation?

(longer duration events)

A change in the RMS voltage. Typically 16 ms (1 cycle) or longer

Reduction in voltage: Sag or Interruption

Increase in voltage: Swell

RMS Voltage Variations

100

0

-100

Sag Swell Interruption
Sag
Swell
Interruption

Motor Starting

Timeplot Chart Volts Amps 222.5 900 800 220.0 700 217.5 600 215.0 500 400 212.5 300
Timeplot Chart
Volts
Amps
222.5
900
800
220.0
700
217.5
600
215.0
500
400
212.5
300
210.0
200
207.5
100
205.0
0
09:49:00.5
09:49:01.0
09:49:01.5
09:49:02.0
09:49:02.5
09:49:03.0
09:49:03.5
09:49:04.0
CHA Vrms
CHA Irms
 

Min

Max

Median

CHA Vrms

206.11

222.25

219.19

CHA Irms

1.40

847.71

207.16

09/13/96 09:49:00.50 - 09/13/96 09:49:04.00

IEEE1159 Characterizations

(RMS Variations)

Instantaneous (0.5 - 30 cycles)

Sag

(0.1 - 0.9 pu)

Swell (1.1 - 1.8 pu)

Momentary (30 cycles - 3 sec)

Interruption (< 0.1 pu, 0.5 cycles - 3s)

Sag

Swell

Temporary (3 sec - 1 minute) • Long Duration (beyond 1 minute)

What is Directivity?

Where the problem originated referenced to the point being monitored (where the instrument is)

Typically referred to as “Upstream” or “Downstream”

Upstream

Source side. Originated from the source of supply (can be utility)

Downstream

 

Load side. Originated from a load

Helps you identify where the problem is and what actions to take.

Case Study – Major Financial Institution

(Benefits of Learning Directivity)

Problem – Utility Sag

Damaged elevator controls

No UPS alarms (2 static, 1 rotary)

No reported problems with critical systems

02/19/2002

00:29:29.26

PM Module

Temporary

Rms Voltage

Mag = 366.V (0.76pu), Dur = 3.300 s, Category = 2, Upstream Sag

Input

Sag

AB

02/19/2002

00:29:29.26

SYSA Input

Temporary

Rms Voltage

Mag = 353.V (0.73pu), Dur = 3.300 s, Category = 2, Upstream Sag

Sag

AB

02/19/2002

00:29:29.26

SYSB Input

Temporary

Rms Voltage

Mag = 372.V (0.78pu), Dur = 3.300 s, Category = 2, Upstream Sag

Sag

AB

Utility Sag

Utility Supply RMS Trend Utility Supply Waveforms
Utility Supply RMS Trend
Utility Supply Waveforms

Corresponding UPS Swell

Utility Supply UPS Swell UPS Output
Utility Supply
UPS Swell
UPS Output

Conclusion

Utility sags damaged elevator controls Corresponding UPS Swell coincident with utility return to normal Cause of swell being investigated by manufacturer Possible effects of swells”

Damaged power supplies and other devices

Without monitoring, the customer would be unaware of the UPS problem. The next time, the damage could be worse

PQ Rule #1

PQ Rule #1 For a source generated Sag, the current usually decreases or goes to zero

For a source generated Sag, the current usually decreases or goes to zero

August 14, 2003 Blackout: Long Duration Interruption

August 14, 2003 Blackout:

Long Duration Interruption

PQ Rule #2

PQ Rule #2 For a load generated Sag, the current usually increases significantly. Waveforms Volts Amps

For a load generated Sag, the current usually increases significantly.

Waveforms

Volts Amps 400 1500 300 1000 200 500 100 0 0 -500 -100 -1000 -200 -1500
Volts
Amps
400
1500
300
1000
200
500
100
0
0
-500
-100
-1000
-200
-1500
-300
-400
-2000
09:49:00.90
09:49:00.95
09:49:01.00
09:49:01.04
09:49:01.09
CHA Volts
CHA Amps

Pre/Post-trigger at 09/13/1996 09:49:00.947 File: C:\DranView\K_DEMO pq+ with inrush data.dnv

RMS Voltage Variations Causes and Effects

Possible Causes

• Sudden change in load current • Fault on feeder • Fault on parallel feeder • Motor start • Undersized distribution system

Possible Effects

• Process interruption • Data loss • Data transmission errors • PLC or computer misoperation • Damaged product • Motor failure

Common RMS Voltage Variations

Visualization methods using power monitoring instrumentation

Sampled data

Recorded Waveforms

Magnitude vs. Time

Timelines

Magnitude vs. Event Duration

CBEMA (IEEE 446) ITIC 3-D Mag-Dur

Equipment susceptibility curves

Custom curves that represent that specific device

IEEE 446 - 1995 Limits (CBEMA)

Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC) Curve

Another Perspective – 3D Mag-Dur Histogram

Case Study

(Laser Printer Heating Cycle)

Case Study ( Laser Printer Heating Cycle)
Case Study ( Laser Printer Heating Cycle)

Voltage Timeline

Vl-n= 120 --> 108 45 seconds
Vl-n= 120 --> 108
45 seconds

SAG when heater turns on

SAG when heater turns on V l-n I load

V l-n

I load

Overlay Voltage & Current - Heater turning on

Overlay Voltage & Current - Heater turning on

What is a harmonic?

An integer multiple of the fundamental frequency

Fundamental (1 st harmonic) = 60hz 2 nd = 120hz 3 rd = 180hz 4 th = 240hz 5 th = 300hz …

Linear Voltage / Current

No Harmonic Content

voltage current
voltage
current

Non-Linear Voltage / Current

Harmonic Content

voltage

Non-Linear Voltage / Current Harmonic Content voltage current
current
current

When should I be concerned about Harmonics?

Harmonics are typically considered a problem when they are always

present…Steady state distortion that is continuously occurring. Although any waveform can have harmonics we aretypically concerned with the cumulative effects of continual harmonic distortion on the power system

Waveforms

Amps

200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 14:34:42.20 14:34:42.21 14:34:42.22 14:34:42.23 14:34:42.24 14:34:42.25 14:34:42.26
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
14:34:42.20
14:34:42.21
14:34:42.22
14:34:42.23
14:34:42.24
14:34:42.25
14:34:42.26
14:34:42.27
CHA Amps

Waveform

event at 03/22/1999 14:34:42.480

File: C:\DranView\Q_DEMO

Cycle by cycle harmonics.dnv

How are harmonics measured?

Individual Harmonics

2, 3, 4, 5, 6…50+ Fourier Transform, FFT, DFT

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

Ratio, expressed as % of sum of all harmonics to:

Fundamental (THD) Total RMS Load Current (I TDD only) Interharmonics

Content between integer harmonics Required for new IEC standards (IEC 61000-4-30)

Harmonic Spectrum

Event waveform/detail

% of FND

12.5 10.0 7.5 5.0 2.5 0.0 Thd H05 H10 H15 H20 H25 H30 CHA Volts
12.5
10.0
7.5
5.0
2.5
0.0
Thd
H05
H10
H15
H20
H25
H30
CHA Volts

Total RMS: 24882.56 Volts

DC Level : 880.46 Volts Fundamental(H1) RMS: 24725.89 Volts

Total Harmonic Distortion (H02-H50):

Even contribution (H02-H50):

10.60 % of FND 7.97 % of FND

Odd contribution (H03-H49): 6.99 % of FND

PQ Rule #3

Even harmonics typically do not appear in a properly operating power system.

Symmetry

Positive & Negative halves the same: Only odd harmonics. If they are different: Even & Odd harmonics

What are Triplen Harmonics?

Harmonics who’s order is a multiple of 3

3, 6, 9, …

Why should I be concerned about Triplen Harmonics?

Triplen Harmonics add in the neutral.

Additive Triplen Harmonics

Harmonics (sustained)

Possible Causes

• Rectified inputs of power supplies

• Non-symmetrical current

• Intermittent electrical noise from loose connections

Possible Effects

• Overload of neutral conductors • Overload of power sources • Low power factor • Reduced ride-through

Case Study

(Laser Printer Heating Cycle)

Continued…

Case Study ( Laser Printer Heating Cycle) Continued…
Case Study ( Laser Printer Heating Cycle) Continued…

Current Waveform - heater on

Current Waveform - heater on

HARMONIC DISTORTION - heater on

Harmonics V l-n Vthd = 2.8% Harmonics I load Ithd = 5%
Harmonics V l-n
Vthd = 2.8%
Harmonics I load
Ithd = 5%

Current With Printer Idle

Current With Printer Idle

Harmonic Distortion - Idle

Harmonics V l-n Vthd = 3.1% Harmonics I load Ithd = 140%
Harmonics V l-n
Vthd = 3.1%
Harmonics I load
Ithd = 140%

Review of What We Just Saw

Nearly Sinusoidal Current

Low Voltage Harmonic Distortion (4%)

Voltage and Current In-phase

Power Factor Near One

Flat-topping of Voltage when Idle

Corresponds with Current Pulse

Other PQ Concerns

(defined in IEEE 1159)

Frequency

Frequency different from the ideal 50/60hz Frequency not synchronized with the grid

Unbalance

Deviation from the average 3 phase voltage (IEEE)

Voltage Fluctuations (Flicker)

Small changes to the magnitude of the voltage Visual perception. Effects on lights

How Many Can You Find?

How Many Can You Find?

Monitoring Approaches and Tools

Handheld/Portable

(Reactive) Vs. Permanently Installed (Proactive)

Reactive Monitoring

Reactive Monitoring  After the fact - Reactive  Forensic approach  Problem Solving, Hopefully you’ll

After the fact - Reactive Forensic approach Problem Solving, Hopefully you’ll

find it!

Portable instrumentation typically used

Reactive Monitoring  After the fact - Reactive  Forensic approach  Problem Solving, Hopefully you’ll
Reactive Monitoring  After the fact - Reactive  Forensic approach  Problem Solving, Hopefully you’ll

Proactive Monitoring

Proactive Monitoring  Permanently installed monitoring systems  Anticipate the future, On-Line when trouble occurs 

Permanently installed monitoring systems

Anticipate the future, On-Line when trouble occurs

Monitor system dynamics

Preventive Maintenance, Trending, identify equipment deterioration

Proactive Monitoring  Permanently installed monitoring systems  Anticipate the future, On-Line when trouble occurs 

Power Quality and Flow