Sie sind auf Seite 1von 70

Programmable

Logic Controllers
Third Edition

Frank D. Petruzella
McGraw-Hill
Chapter 7

Programming
Timers
Timers
There are very few industrial control systems that do not
need at least one or two timed functions. They are used to
activate or de-activate a device after a preset interval of
time.
Time delay relays and solid-state timers are used to provide a time
delay. They may have displays, pots or other means of operator
interface for time settings and electromechanical or solid state
outputs.

Time Delay Solid-State


Relay Timer
On-Delay Timing Relay

Operating coil
NO Nontimed contacts are
controlled directly by
Instantaneous the timer coil, as in a
contacts general-purpose
NC control relay.

When the coil is


energized, the timed
contacts are are
prevented from opening
NO
or closing until the time
Time control delay period has elapsed.
contacts However, when the coil is
NC de-energized, the timed
contacts return
Time adjustment instantaneously to their
normal state.
Timed Contact Symbols
On-Delay Symbols

Normally open, timed Normally closed, timed


closed contact (NOTC) open contact (NCTO)

Contact is open when Contact is closed when


relay coil is de-energized relay coil is de-energized

When relay is energized, When relay is energized,


there is a time delay in there is a time delay in
closing opening
Timed Contact Symbols
Off Delay Symbols

Normally open, timed Normally closed, timed


open contacts (NOTO). closed contacts (NCTC).
Contact is normally Contact is normally
open when relay coil closed when relay coil
is de-energized. is de-energized.
When relay coil is When relay coil is
energized, contact closes energized, contact opens
instantly. instantly.
When relay coil is de- When relay coil is de-
energized, there is a time energized, there is a time
delay before the contact delay before the contact
opens. closes.
On-Delay Relay Timer Circuit (NOTC Contact)
L1 S1
L2 Sequence of operation
S1 open, TD de-energized,
TD1 open, L1 is off.
L1
S1 closes, TD energizes,
timing period starts,
10 s
TD1 still open, L1 is still off.

10 s After 10 s, TD1 closes, L1 is


switched on.
Input
ON
S1 is opened, TD de-
OFF
Output energizes, TD1 opens
Timing Diagram instantly, L1 is switched off.
On-Delay Relay Timer Circuit (NCTO Contact)
L1 L2
S1 Sequence of operation
S1 open, TD de-energized,
TD1 closed, L1 is on.
L1
S1 closes, TD energizes,
10 s timing period starts, TD1
is still closed, L1 is still on.
10 s After 10 s, TD1 opens,
L1 is switched off.
Input
On
Output S1 is opened, TD de-energizes,
Off TD1 closes instantly, L1 is
Timing Diagram switched on.
Off-Delay Relay Timer Circuit (NOTO Contact)
L1 L2
S1 Sequence of operation
S1 open, TD de-energized,
TD1 open, L1 is off.
L1
S1 closes, TD energizes,
TD1 closes instantly,
10 s L1 is switched on.
S1 is opened, TD de-energizes,
10 s
timing period starts, TD1 is
still closed, L1 is still on.
Input
On
Off After 10 s, TD1 opens, L1 is
Output
switched off.
Timing Diagram
Off-Delay Relay Timer Circuit (NCTC Contact)
L1 L2
S1 Sequence of operation
S1 open, TD de-energized,
TD1 closed, L1 is on.
L1
S1 closes, TD energizes,
TD1 opens instantly,
10 s L1 is switched off.

10 s S1 is opened,
TD de-energizes, timing
period starts, TD1 is still
Input
On
open, L1 is still off.
Output
Off After 10 s, TD1 closes,
L1 is switched on.
Timing Diagram
1. Timers are used to activate or de-activate a
device after a preset interval of time.
(True/False)

2. With most timers the time delay period is fixed


and can not be varied. (True/False)

3. ________ contacts are controlled directly by the


timer coil, as in a general-purpose control relay.

(a) timed (c) instantaneous


(b) NO (d) NC
4. When a relay timer coil is de-energized, the
timed contacts return instantaneously to their
normal state. (True/False)

5. Which of the following symbols represents a


normally open timed closed contact?
6. Which of the following symbols represents a
normally closed timed open contact?
7. The timed relay contact shown is designed to
operate so that:

a. when the relay coil is energized, there is a


time delay in closing
b. when the relay coil is energized, there is a
time delay in opening
c. when the relay coil is de-energized, there is a
time delay in closing
d. when the relay coil is de-energized, there is a
time delay in opening
8. The timing diagram shown is that of an

10 s

Input
On
Off
Output
Timing Diagram

a. on-delay timer circuit (NOTC contact)


b. on-delay timer circuit (NCTO contact)
c. off-delay timer circuit (NCTC contact)
d. off-delay timer circuit (NOTO contact)
9. In the circuit shown, the light will stay off
L1 L2
S1

L1

10 s

a. as long as S1 is closed
b. for 10 seconds after coil TD is energized
c. for 10 seconds after coil TD is de-energized
d. both a and c
10. In the circuit shown, the light will stay on

a. as long as S1 is closed
b. as long as S1 is open
c. for 10 seconds after S1 is closed
d. both b and c
Programmed Timer Instructions

PLC timers are output instructions that provide the


same functions as timing relays and solid state timers.

Some advantages of PLC timers:

their settings can be altered easily

the number of PLC timers used


can be increased or decreased by
programming changes without
wiring changes

timer accuracy and repeatability


are extremely high
RSLogic Timer Commands

TON

Timer/Counter

Command Name Description

TON Timer On-Delay Counts time base


intervals when the
instruction is true
RSLogic Timer Commands

TOF

Timer/Counter

Command Name Description

TOF Timer Off-Delay Counts time base


intervals when the
instruction is false
RSLogic Timer Commands

RTO RES

Timer/Counter

Command Name Description


Counts time base
RTO Retentive Timer intervals when the
ON instruction is true and
retains the accumulated
value when the
instruction goes "false" or
when power cycle occurs
When this instruction is
RES Reset
"true" it resets the count
of the RTO counter
Quantities Associated with the Timer Instruction
Preset Time Represents the time duration of the timing
circuit. For example, if a time delay of 10 s is required,
the timer will have a preset of 10 s.

Accumulated Time Represents the amount of time that


has elapsed from the moment the timing coil became
energized.

Time Base Timers can typically be programmed with


several different time bases: 1 s, 0.1 s, and 0.01 s are
typical time bases. For example, if you enter 0.1 for the
time base and 50 for the preset time the timer would
have a 5 s delay (50 x 0.1 s = 5 s).
Coil-Formatted Timer Instruction
Contact determines The timer assigned
rung continuity an address
The type of timer
is specified XXX

TON

Preset value PR:YYY


Time base 0.1 s
Accumulated value AC:000
When the timer rung has logic continuity, the timer's
accumulated value increases. When accumulated value equals
the preset value, the output is energized and and the timed
output contact associated with the output is closed. The timed
contact can be used as many times as you wish throughout the
program as a NO or NC contact.
Generic Block-Formatted Timer Instruction
Timers are most often represented by boxes in a ladder
logic.
Control line controls the actual timing operation of the timer.
Whenever this line is true the timer will time.
Retentive timer block

Preset time
Time base
Accumulated time Output line

The timer continuously compares its accumulated time with its


preset time. Its output is logic 0 as long as the accumulated time is
less than
Reset linethe preset
resets thetime. When the
the timer's two become
accumulated equal
value to the
zero.output
changes to logic 1.
On-Delay Timer Instruction
The on-delay timer operates
so that, when the rung Input Timer
containing the timer is true,
the timer time-out period
commences.
Timer Sequence True
False The timed output
Rung condition becomes true
sometimes after the
Timed period timer rung becomes
On delay
time duration true; hence the timer
is said to have an on
True
delay.
False ON
Timed output bit
OFF
Allen-Bradley On-Delay Timer Instruction
Allen-Bradley PLC-5 and SLC-500 controller timer
elements each take three data table words: the
control word, preset word, and accumulated word.

The control word uses three control bits: Enable (EN) bit,
Timer-Timing (TT) bit, and Done-Bit (DN).

TIMER TABLE

/EN /TT /DN


T4:0 0 0 0
Allen-Bradley On-Delay Timer Instruction
The Enable (EN) bit is true (has a status of 1)
whenever the timer instruction is true. When the
timer instruction is false, the enable bit is false (has
a status of 0)
Enable bit false
TON
TIMER ON DELAY
Timer T4:0 EN

T4:0
Enable bit true
EN
Allen-Bradley On-Delay Timer Instruction
The Timer-Timing (TT) bit is true whenever the
accumulated value of the timer is changing, which
means the timer is timing.

TON
TIMER ON DELAY
Timer T4:0 EN
Preset 50
Accumulated 10

T4:0
Timer-Timing bit true
TT
Allen-Bradley On-Delay Timer Instruction
The Done-Bit (DN) changes state whenever the
accumulated value reaches the preset value. Its
state depends on the type of timer being used.

TON
TIMER ON DELAY
Timer T4:0 EN
Preset 50 DN
Accumulated 10
50

T4:0
Done-bit changes state
DN
Allen-Bradley On-Delay Timer Instruction
The preset value (PRE) word is the set point of the
timer, that is, the value up to which the timer will
time.
The accumulated value (ACC) word is the value that
increments as the timer is timing. The accumulated
value will stop incrementing when its value reaches
the preset value.

TIMER TABLE
/EN /TT /DN .PRE .ACC
T4:0 0 0 0 0 0
Allen-Bradley On-Delay Timer Instruction
The information to be entered includes:
TON
TIMER ON DELAY
Timer T4:0 EN
Time base 1.0
Preset 15 DN
Accumulated 0

Timer number which must come from the timer file.


Time base which is expressed in seconds.
Preset value which is the length of the time delay.
Accumulated value which is normally entered as 0.
On-Delay Timer Program

Ladder Logic Program


L1 L2
Input A TON
TIMER ON DELAY
Input A Output B G
Timer T4:0 EN
Time base 1.0
Preset 10
Accumulated 0 DN
10 Output C R
T4:0 Output B

EN Output D Y
T4:0 Output C

TT
T4:0 Output D

DN
On-Delay Timer Program
Timing Diagram

On
Input condition A
Off
On
Timer-enable bit
Off
On
Timer-timing bit
Off
4s 4s
On
Timer-done bit
Off

Timer accumulated 0
value
On-Delay Timer Program
Timers are 3-word elements

Word
EN TT DN Internal use 0
Preset value PRE 1
Accumulated value ACC 2

Word 0 is the control word


Word 1 stores the preset value

Word 2 stores the accumulated value


On-Delay Timer With Instantaneous Output

Relay Ladder Schematic Diagram

Stop Start
L1 L2

1TD

1TD-1
(instantaneous M
contact)

1TD-2
(5 s)
(timed contact)
On-Delay Timer With Instantaneous Output

Programmed Circuit

Ladder logic program

Inputs Internal
Stop Start Output
relay
L1 L2

Stop
Motor M
Start Internal Motor
relay M

Timer
PR: 5
TB: 1 s Output
line
Start-Up Warning Signal Circuit
Relay Ladder Schematic Diagram
L1 Start-up Reset L2
PB1 PB2 CR1

CR1-1
1TD

CR1-2
Horn

CR1-3
1TD-1
(10 s)
Start-Up Warning Signal Circuit
Programmed Circuit

Ladder logic program


Inputs
Output
PB1 PB2 TON
Start-up TIMER ON DELAY
Timer T4:0 EN
PB1 Time base 1.0
T4:0 DN
Reset Preset 10 Horn
PB2 Accumulated 0
10
EN
Horn
T4:0 T4:0

DN EN
Timed Closed Solenoid Value Program

Ladder logic program


Input Output

L1 L2
Switch SW_1 TON
Timer On Delay
SW_1 EN Valve
Timer timer_1
Preset 12000 DN
Accumulated 120000

timer_1.dn Valve
Automatic Sequential Control System
L1 Start
L2
Stop PB2
Relay Ladder PB1
Lube oil OL
pump motor
Schematic
M1
Diagram

M1-1 Main drive


motor OL
PS1
M2

(lube oil
pressure switch) 1TD

OL

M3
1TD-1 Feed
(15 s) motor
Automatic Sequential Control System
Programmed Circuit
Ladder logic program
Inputs PB1 PB2 M1 Outputs
OL
PB1
M1
M1
PB2 OL

PS1 M2 M2
PS1
OL
M3

TON
TIMER ON DELAY EN
Timer T4:0
Time base 1.0 DN
Preset 15
Accumulated 15
0

T4:0 M3

DN
Off-Delay Programmed Timer
The off-delay timer (TOF) operation will keep the output
energized for a period after the rung containing the timer
has gone false.

Ladder logic program Output


Input
L1 L2

S1 I:1.0/0 TOF
TIMER OFF DELAY
I:1.0/0 EN O:2.0/1 PL
TIMER T4:3
Time base 1.0 DN
Preset 15
Accumulated 0
15

T4:3/DN O:2.0/1
Off-Delay Programmed Timer
Timing Diagram

True
Input condition
S1 False

Timed period

Off delay
timed duration

True (logic 1)

Timed output False (logic 0)

O:2.0/1 Preset value = accumulated value


Off-Delay Timer Used To Switch Motors Off
Input Ladder logic program
Output L2
L1

5000

10000

15000
Pneumatic Off-Delay Timer
L1 L2

Relay Ladder
Schematic
Diagram
Programmed Pneumatic Off-Delay Timer
Equivalent Programmed Circuit
Ladder logic program
Input Outputs

L1 L2

5
Fluid Pumping Process

Operation

Before starting, PS1 must be closed.


When the pump start button is pressed, the pump starts. The
button can then be released and the pump continues to operate.
When the stop button is pushed, the pump stops.
PS2 and PS3 must be closed for 5 s after the pump starts. If
either PS2 or PS3 opens, the pump will shut off and will not not
be able to start again for another 14 s.
Fluid Pumping Process Program
Ladder logic program

Inputs Output
L1 L2

05
Retentive Timer
A retentive timer accumulates time whenever the device
receives power, and maintains the current time should
power be removed from the device. Once the device
accumulates time equal to its preset value, the contacts of
the device change state. The retentive timer must be
intentionally reset with a separate signal for the
accumulated time to be reset.
Electromechnical Retentive Timer
Once power is applied, the motor
starts turning the cam. The
Cam operated positioning of the lobes determines
contact the time it takes to activate the
contacts. If power is removed from
Motor-driven the motor, the shaft stops but does
cam not reset.
Retentive On-Delay Timer Program
The PLC-programmed RETENTIVE ON-DELAY timer
(RTO) operates in the same way as the nonretentive on-
delay timer (TON), with one major exception. This is a
retentive timer reset (RTR) instruction.
Unlike the TON, the RTO
will hold its accumulated
value when the timer rung
goes false and will continue
timing where it left off when
the timer rung goes true
again. This timer must be
Same address accompanied by a timer reset
(RES) instruction to reset the
accumulated value of the
timer to zero.
Retentive On-Delay Timer Program

039
Retentive On-Delay Timing Chart
Enable bit is reset when
input pushbutton PB1 is
opened

Accum = Preset
Accum value retained
when rung goes false

When reset PB2 is closed,


the T4:2/DN bit is reset to
0. Accumulated value is
reset and held at zero until
the reset pushbutton is
opened.
Retentive On-delay Alarm Program
Ladder logic program L2
L1

60000
0

The purpose of the RTO timer is to detect whenever a piping


system has sustained a cumulative overpressure condition of 60 s.
At that point, a horn is sounded automatically. You can silence the
alarm by switching the key switch to the rest position.
Bearing Lubrication
Program
Sequence Of Operation

To start the machine, the operator turns SW on.


Before the motor shaft starts to turn, the bearings are supplied
with oil by the pump for 10 s.
The bearings also receive oil when the machine is running.
When the operator turns SW off to stop the machine, the oil
pump continues to supply oil for 15 s.
A retentive timer is used to track the total running time of the
pump. When the total running time is 3 h, the motor is shut down
and a pilot light is turned on to indicate that the filter and oil
need to be changed.
A reset button is provided to reset the process after the filter and
oil have been changed.
Bearing Lubrication Program

10
0

15

10800
Cascading Timers
The programming of two or more timers together is
called cascading. Timers may be interconnected, or
cascaded to satisfy any required control logic.

Relay Schematic
Diagram

Three motors started


automatically in
sequence with a 20-s
time delay between
each motor startup.
Equivalent Time-Delayed Motor-Starting Program

20000

2000
0
Annunciator Flasher Circuit
Two timers can be interconnected to form an oscillator
circuit. The oscillator logic is basically a timing circuit
programmed to generate periodic output pulses of any
duration. They can be used as part of an annunciator
system to indicate an alarm condition.

The oscillator circuit output


is programmed in series with
the alarm condition. If the
alarm condition is true, the
appropriate output
indicating light will flash.
Annunciator Flasher Circuit
Cascading of Timers for Longer Time Delays

30000

12000
Control of Traffic Lights in One Direction

A typical application for PLC timers is the control of


traffic lights.

Control of Traffic in One Direction


Sequence of Operation

Red Green Amber


30 s 25 s 5s
Control of Traffic Lights in One Direction

30

25

5
11. The timed contact of a PLC timer can only
be used as a normally-open contact. (True/False)

12. The ______ bit operates the same as an


instantaneous contact on a timer relay.
a. enable
b. done
c. timer-timing
d. timer number
13. The preset time of a PLC timer represents the
amount of time that has elapsed from the moment
the timing coil became energized. (True/False)

14. If the preset time of a timer is 150 and the time


base is 0.1 seconds, the time-delay period would
be 1500 seconds. (True/False)
15. In general, the three different types of PLC
timers are:
a. TON, TOF, and PRE
b. TON, TOF, and RTO
c. TON, ACC, and RTO
d. TT, EN, and DN
16. The amount of time for which a timer is
programmed is called the

a. preset
b. set point
c. Done Time (DN)
d. accumulated time
17. The timer reset instruction must be addressed
to the same address as the ______ instruction.

a. TON

b. TOF

c. RTO

d. EN
18. Which of the following statements is not
true for a retentive on-delay timer?
a. The timer accumulates time when it is
energized.
b.The timer requires a reset instruction to
reset the accumulated value of the timer to
zero.
c. The timer does not reset to zero when it is
de-energized.
d. The reset input to the timer will not
override the control input.
19. The timer instruction is:
a. an input instruction c. either a or b
b. an output instruction d. both a or b

20. The interconnection of timers is commonly


called :
a. grouping
b. programming
c. sequencing
d. cascading
21. For the program shown, the pilot light will be:

a. on at all times
b. off at all times
c. switched on 15 s after the switch has been actuated
from the open to the closed position
d. switched off 15 s after the switch has been actuated
from the on to off position