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Media of Communication
(1) Gestures, Facial expressions
(2) Oral communication
(a) Non-mechanical and
(b) Mechanical
(3) Written communication
(4) Face-to-face communication
(5) Electronic communication

1. Gestures, Facial expressions
These are the oldest media, exclusively used by
people in ancient times when no language was
2. Oral communication
with the introduction of languages and the
advent of human civilization oral communication
started taking place. The divine books that we
find to-day in written form first came in the form
of oral messages from the Almighty Allah.

> In modern days people, either in business or in

any other profession, pass 50 to 90 percent of
their time in oral communication.

> Channels of oral communication:

a. Non-mechanical channels:
ii. Interview
iii. Conversation
iv. Counseling
v. Group discussion
vi. Conference
vii. Training/class-room teaching

b. Mechanical channels:
i. Telephone / Cellular phone
ii. Radio and TV
iii. Microphone
iv. Internet

> Merits of Oral Communication:
1. Easy means of communication
2. Effective for illiterate receivers
3. Time saving
4. Quick feed-back
5. Flexibility
6. Absence of strict formality
7. Motivation
8. Reliability
9: Creating harmonious relations
10. Economical(If non-mechanical)
> Demerits of oral Communication
i) Possibilities of conflicts and
ii) Distorted meaning
iii) No record
iv) Leakage of secret information
v) Delayed decisions
vi) Difficult to fix responsibility
vii) Emphasis on presentation than on the
> When Oral Communication is more effective?
i) Need for oral explanation
ii) Immediate response
iii) Quick exchange of views
iv) Illiterate receivers
v) Direct relation
vi) Maintaining secrecy

Principles of Oral Communication

i) Brevity
ii) Clear pronunciation
iii) Precision
iv) Expressive delivery
v) Logical sequence
vi) Suitable vocabulary
vii) Maintaining fluency
viii) Attractive presentation
ix) Proper listening by the receiver
3. Written Communication

A message communicated in written form is

known as written communication
Media of Written Communication for
i) News letters
ii) Formal reports
iii) Special bulletins
iv) Supervisors handbook
v) Special Publications for supervisors
vi) Policy statements
> Media of written Communication for Employees
i) News paper
ii) Bulletins
iii) Suggestion box/book
iv) Wall magazine
v) Reading rack
vi) Leaflet
vii) Bulletin board and posters
viii) Circular notice
ix) Special report
> Benefits of Written Communication
i) Legal document
ii) Accurate and precise
iii) Clear understanding by the receiver
iv) Effective presentation
v) Permanent record
vi) Helps delegation of authority
vii) Facilitates of duplication
viii) Wide and quick access
ix) Reduction of risk of distortion
x) Facilitates Control
xi) Creating confidence
> Demerits of Written Communication

i) Expensive
ii) Useless to illiterates
iii) Time consuming
iv) Delayed clarification
v) Delayed feedback
vi) Red-tapism
vii) Lack of flexibility
viii) Cost of preservation and indexing
> Written or Oral Communication- Which one is more

> Factors that determine the media to be used are:

i) Cost minimization
ii) Quick feed-back
iii) Risk of distortion
iv) Risk of leakage of secrecy
v) Accuracy and pressures
vi) Level of literacy of receivers
vii) Need for keeping of record
viii) Need for effective presentation

4. Face-to-face Communication
If takes place between the sender and the
receiver, either orally or through gestures,
facial expression etc. In face-to-face
communication written media can also be
used. Use of multi-media also is not
uncommon. It is very effective in class-
room teaching, workshops. seminars,
conferences etc. It is mostly used in
dispute settlement.
5. Electronic Communication
E-Communication involves collection,
processing, storage and dissemination of
information through electronic devices.

It is the result of integration of computer
hardware, software, data processing, office
automation, networked multimedia, video
conferencing, e-mail, etc.
Important application areas are--banking, health
care, transportation, manufacturing, marketing,
Managers in these and many other areas must
remain prepared to adopt appropriate
technologies to operate e-commerce.

Not effective if the listeners are of diverse background

E. Commerce: Commerce done on-line. Steps involved


Step 1: Establishing a website and then to disseminate

information electronically.
Step-2: Advancing the website to self-service status,
where customers can check their account status.
Step-3: Further advancing the website to allow
transactions including the buying and selling of
E. Commerce has brought revolutionary changes in
Preconditions for wide use of E. Communication

> Telephone penetration

Connecting through optical fiber
Cyber laws
> Combating illiteracy
> Providing cyber retail networks via public
browsing points.

> Popular forms of e. communication

i. E-mail: A communicator types a message on his/her

computer and transmits it to the desired receiver. The
receiver opens the mail, reads the message on the
monitor and can respond immediately. The entire
process takes very little time. For the operation of e-mail,
both the communicator and the communicate must have
access to computer terminal connected on network

ii. V. Mail: Voice mail transmits the message in the voice

of the caller, who uses telephone to dial voice-mail
service and store the oral message. Thereafter the
stored message is delivered to the person concerned.

iii- Cellular Phone: Under this system, a person
can carry a telephone set with him wherever s/he
goes and can receive and make telephone calls
anywhere with the network.

iv. Facsimile (Fax):_ Facsimile means a copy.

The copy is transmitted via telephone lines to
receiver instrument. It makes written
communication easy and quick.

v. Teleconferencing: A group of people interacting

with each other by means of telephone.