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Topic #4: Design of

pressure vessels

CHE 601
OVERVIEW
The basic info needed by the
specialised designer;
a) Vessel function
b) Process materials and services
c) Operating and design temperature and
pressure
d) Material and construction
e) Vessel dimensions and orientation
f) Type of vessel heads to be used
g) Openings and connections required.
h) Specification of heating and cooling
jackets or coils
WHAT DO YOU KNOW
ABOUT
PRESSURE VESSEL??
a closed container
PRESSURE VESSEL
designed to hold gases or
liquids at
pressuresubstantially
different from the
ambientpressure
TYPES OF PRESSURE VESSELS

There are three main types of pressure vessels


in general

Horizontal Pressure Vessels


Vertical Pressure Vessels
Spherical Pressure vessels

However there are some special types of Vessels like


Regeneration Tower, Reactors but these names are
given
according to their use only.
Pressure Vessel Shape
Most pressure vessels are at least 2:1
cylinders: 3:1 or 4:1 are most common:

2:1 3:1 4:1

(To scale)
Distillation
columns are obviously an
exception: diameter is set by flooding
correlations and height by number of trays
Vessel Orientation
Usually vertical
Easier to distribute fluids across a smaller
cross section
Smaller plot space
Reasons for using horizontal vessels
To promote phase separation
Increased cross section = lower vertical velocity =
less entrainment
Decanters, settling tanks, separators, flash vessels
To allow internals to be pulled for cleaning
Heat exchangers
PRESURE VESSEL TYPES
HORIZONTAL PRESSURE VESSEL
VERTICAL PRESSURE VESSEL

The max. Shell


length to diameter
ratio for a small
vertical drum is
about 5 : 1
PRESSURE VESSEL
TOP NOZZLE
TOP HEAD

SIDE NOZZLE

FLANGE
SHELL
GASKET

DRAIN NOZZLE
BOTTOM
HEAD
TALL VERTICAL TOWER

Constructed in a wider
range of shell diameter
and height.
They can be relatively
small in dia. and very
large (e.g. 4 ft dia. And
200 ft tall distillation
column.
They can be very large
in dia. and moderately
tall (e.g. 3 ft dia. And
150 ft tall tower).
Internal trays are
needed for flow
distribution.
VERTICAL REACTOR

Figure shows a typical


reactor vessel with a
cylindrical shell.

The process fluid


undergoes a chemical
reaction inside a
reactor.

This reaction is
normally facilitated by
the presence of a
catalyst which is held in
one or more catalyst
beds.
SPHERICAL PRESSURIZED
STORAGE VESSEL
Swaged Vessels
Vessel does not have to be
constant diameter
It is sometimes cheaper to
make a vessel with several
sections of different diameter
Smaller diameters are
usually at the top, for
structural reasons
ASME BPV Code gives rules
for tapered sections
PRESSURE VESSEL

Pressure Vessel Design


A pressure vessel is any vessel
that falls under the definition
laid down in the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code,
Section VIII, Rules for the
Construction of Pressure
Vessels (ASME BPV Code Sec.
VIII)
The definition applies to most
process reactors, distillation
columns, separators (flashes
and decanters), pressurized Source: UOP

storage vessels and heat


exchangers

2012 G.P. Towler / UOP. For educational use in conjunction with


Towler & Sinnott Chemical Engineering Design only. Do not copy
Isnt This Something to Leave to the
Mechanical Engineers?
Chemical engineers are usually not properly trained or qualified to carry
out detailed mechanical design of vessels. Most mechanical designs
are completed by specialists in later phases of design
But
The process design engineer needs to understand pressure vessel
design in order to generate good cost estimates (e.g. in Aspen
ICARUS)
Costs can vary discontinuously with vessel design
A 10C change in temperature could double the vessel cost if it causes a change in code!
Adding a component could cause a change in metallurgy that would mean moving to a more
expensive code design
The process engineer will end up specifying the main constraints on the
vessel design: if you dont know how to do this properly, you cant really
design anything
Vessel Specifications Set By the
Process Engineer
The process engineer will usually specify the following
parameters based on process requirements:
Vessel size and shape (volume, L and D)
Vessel orientation and elevation
Maximum and minimum design pressure
Maximum and minimum design temperature
Number of nozzles needed (& location)
Vessel internals
And often also:
Material of construction
Corrosion allowance
There is often a lot of dialogue with the mechanical
engineer to set the final specifications
Design Pressure
Normal operating pressure
The pressure at which you expect the process to usually be
operated
Maximum operating pressure
The highest pressure expected including upset conditions such
as startup, shutdown, emergency shutdown
Design pressure
Maximum operating pressure plus a safety margin
Margin is typically 10% of maximum operating pressure or 25 psi,
whichever is greater
Usually specify pressure at top of vessel, where relief valve is
located
The BPV Code Sec. VIII Div. 1 doesnt say much on how to set the
design pressure
..a pressure vessel shall be designed for at least the most
severe condition of coincident pressure and temperature
expected in normal operation.
Design for Vacuum
The minimum internal pressure a vessel can experience is
full vacuum (-14.7 psig)
Vacuum can be caused by:
Intentional process operation under vacuum (including
start-up and shutdown)
Cooling down a vessel that contains a condensable
vapor
Pumping out or draining contents without allowing
enough vapor to enter
Operator error
Vacuum puts vessel walls into compressive stress
What happens if vessel is not designed for vacuum
conditions?
Vessel Subjected to Excess Vacuum

Normalpractice is to design for vacuum if it


can be expected to occur
Design Temperatures
Maximum:
Highest mean metal temperature expected in
operation, including transient conditions, plus a
margin
Margin is typically plus 50F
Minimum
Lowest mean metal temperature expected in
operation, including transient conditions, upsets,
auto-refrigeration, climatic conditions, anything
else that could cause cooling, minus a margin
Margin is typically -25F
MDMT: minimum design metal temperature is
important as metals can become brittle at low
temperatures
Designer should allow for possible failure of
Design Temperature
Considerations
Due to creep, maximum allowable stress drops off
rapidly at higher temperatures
Forces designer to use more expensive alloys
BPV Code Sec. VIII Div.2 cannot be applied for design
temperatures > 900F (no creep safety factor in Div.2)
The Code allows design of vessels with different
temperature zones
Very useful for high temperature vessels
Not usually applied to medium temperature vessels
such as heat exchangers, distillation columns
Materials Selection Criteria
Safety
Material must have sufficient strength at
design conditions
Material must be able to withstand
variation (or cycling) in process
conditions
Material must have sufficient corrosion
resistance to survive in service between
inspection intervals
Ease of fabrication
Availability in standard sizes (plates,
sections, tubes)
Commonly Used Materials
Steels
Carbon steel, Killed carbon steel cheap, widely available
Low chrome alloys (<9% Cr) better corrosion resistance than CS, KCS
Stainless steels:
304 cheapest austenitic stainless steel
316 better corrosion resistance than 304, more expensive
410
Nickel Alloys
Inconel, Incolloy high temperature oxidizing environments
Monel, Hastelloy expensive, but high corrosion resistance, used for
strong acids
Other metals such as aluminum and titanium are used for special
applications. Fiber reinforced plastics are used for some low
temperature & pressure applications. See Ch 7 for more details
Relative Cost of Metals

The maximum allowable stress values are at 40C (100F) and are taken from
ASME BPV Code Sec. II Part D. The code should be consulted for values at
other temperatures. Several other grades exist for most of the materials listed.
Finished vessel relative costs are not the same as materials relative costs as
vessel cost also includes manufacturing costs, labor and fabricators profit
PRESURE VESSEL
No strict definition of what constitutes
a pressure vessel.
General term- any closed vessel over
150mm diameter subject to a pressure
difference of more than 0.5 bar should
be designed as a pressure vessel.
Divided into 2 classes depending on
the ratio of the wall thickness to vessel
diameter. Less than 1:10 (thin walled
vessels). More than the ratio known as
(thick wv)
PRESURE VESSEL
In all major industrial countries the design
and fabrication of thin-walled pressure vessel
is covered by national standard and
codes of practice.

No international standard of PV design, but


mostly refer to;
1) ASME boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
(required std in US, Canada & etc)
2) European Union-European Standard EN
13445

Pressure Vessel for chemical and allied


MAIN COMPONENTS OF
PRESSURE VESSEL

Following are the main components of pressure


Vessels in general

Shell
Head
Nozzle
Support
PRESSURE VESSEL
TOP NOZZLE
TOP HEAD

SIDE NOZZLE

FLANGE
SHELL
GASKET

DRAIN NOZZLE
BOTTOM
HEAD
SHELL

It is the primary component that contains the


pressure.

Pressure vessel shells in the form of different


plates are welded together to form a
structure that has a common rotational axis.

Shells are either cylindrical, spherical or


conical in shape.
SHELL

Horizontal drums have cylindrical shells and


are constructed in a wide range of diameter
and length.
The shell sections of a tall tower may be
constructed of different materials, thickness
and diameters due to process and phase
change of process fluid.
Shell of a spherical pressure vessel is
spherical as well.
Tangent and Weld Lines
Tangent line is
where curvature
begins
Weld line is where
weld is located
Usually they are not
the same, as the
head is fabricated to
allow a weld away
from the geometrical
joint
HEAD

All the pressure vessels must be closed at


the ends by heads (or another shell section).
Heads are typically curved rather than flat.
The reason is that curved configurations are
stronger and allow the heads to be thinner,
lighter and less expensive than flat heads.
Heads can also be used inside a vessel and
are known as intermediate heads.
These intermediate heads are separate
sections of the pressure vessels to permit
different design conditions.
NOZZLE

A nozzle is a cylindrical component that


penetrates into the shell or head of pressure
vessel.
They are used for the following applications.

Attach piping for flow into or out of the vessel.


Attach instrument connection (level gauges,
Thermowells, pressure gauges).
Provide access to the vessel interior at MANWAY.
Provide for direct attachment of other equipment
items (e.g. heat exchangers).
Nozzles
Vessel needs nozzles for
Feeds, Products
Hot &/or cold utilities
Manways, bursting disks, relief
valves
Instruments
Pressure, Level, Thermowells
Sample points
More nozzles = more cost
Nozzles are usually on side of vessel,
away from weld lines, usually
perpendicular to shell
Nozzles may or may not be flanged (as
shown) depending on joint type
The number & location of nozzles are
usually specified by the process
engineer
Nozzle Reinforcement

Shell is weakened around nozzles, and must also support eccentric


loads from pipes
Usually weld reinforcing pads to thicken the shell near the nozzle. Area
of reinforcement = or > area of nozzle: see Code requirements
SUPPORT

Support is used to bear all the load of


pressure vessel, earthquake and wind loads.

There are different types of supports which


are used depending upon the size and
orientation of the pressure vessel.

It is considered to be the non-pressurized


part of the vessel.
TYPES OF SUPPORTS

SADDLE SUPPORT:

Horizontal drums are typically supported at two


locations by saddle support.

It spreads over a large area of the shell to prevent an


excessive local stress in the shell at support point.

One saddle support is anchored whereas the other is


free to permit unstrained longitudinal thermal
expansion of the drum.
TYPES OF SUPPORTS

LEG SUPPORT:

Small vertical drums are typically supported on legs


that are welded to the lower portion of the shell.
The max. ratio of support leg length to drum diameter
is typically 2 : 1
Reinforcing pads are welded to the shell first to
provide additional local reinforcement and load
distribution.
The number of legs depends on the drum size and
loads to be carried.
Support legs are also used for Spherical pressurized
storage vessels.
Cross bracing between the legs is used to absorb wind
or earth quake loads.
TYPES OF SUPPORTS

LUG SUPPORT:
Vertical pressure vessels may
also be supported by lugs.

The use of lugs is typically


limited to pressure vessels of
small and medium diameter (1
to 10 ft)

Also moderate height to


diameter ratios in the range of
2:1 to 5:1

The lugs are typically bolted


to horizontal structural
members in order to provide
stability against overturning
loads.
TYPES OF SUPPORTS

SKIRT SUPPORT:

Tall vertical cylindrical pressure vessels are typically


supported by skirts.

A support skirt is a cylindrical shell section that is


welded either to the lower portion of the vessel shell
or to the bottom head (for cylindrical vessels).

The skirt is normally long enough to provide enough


flexibility so that radial thermal expansion of the shell
does not cause high thermal stresses at its junction
with the skirt.
Vessel Supports
Supports must allow for
thermal expansion in
operation
Smaller vessels are
usually supported on
beams a support ring or
brackets are welded to the
vessel
Horizontal vessels often
rest on saddles
Tall vertical vessels are
often supported using a
skirt rather than legs. Can
you think why?
Vessel Supports
Note that if the vessel rests on a
beam then the part of the vessel
below the support ring is hanging
and the wall is in tension from the
weight of material in the vessel,
the dead weight of the vessel
itself and the internal pressure
The part of the vessel above the
support ring is supported and the
wall is in compression from the
dead weight (but probably in
tension from internal pressure)
Jacketed Vessels
Heating or cooling jackets are
often used for smaller vessels
such as stirred tank reactors
If the jacket can have higher
pressure than the vessel then
the vessel walls must be
designed for compressive
stresses
Internal stiffening rings are
often used for vessels subject
to external pressure
For small vessels the walls are
just made thicker
Vessel Internals
Most vessels have at least some
internals
Distillation trays
Packing supports
Distribution grids
Heating or cooling coils
These may require support rings
welded to the inside of the vessel
The internals & support rings need
to be considered when calculating
vessel weights for stress analysis

Source: UOP
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES &
EQUATIONS
1. PRINCIPLE STRESSES
2. THEORIES OF FAILURE (MSST)
3. ELASTIC STABILITY (eg: buckling &
wrinkling). Elastic buckling is the decisive
criterion in the design of thin walled
vessels under external pressure.
Buckling occurs when critical value load
exceeded catastrophic failure. (a sudden
and total failure of somesystem from
which recovery is impossible)
In thin walled vessels, can fail by buckling
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES &
EQUATIONS

4. MEMBRANE STRESSES IN SHELLS


- Analysis based on internal pressure
gives a basis for determining the
minimum wall thickness required for
vessel shells.(cylinder, sphere, cone,
ellipsoid, torus, torispherical
heads) ..refer pages 799-805.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES &
EQUATIONS

5. FLAT PLATES- are used as covers for


manholes, as blind flanges, and for
the ends of small diameter and low
pressure vessels.
Clamped edges
Simply supported plate

6. DILATION OF VESSELS- under


internal pressure a vessel will expand
slightly. The radial growth can be
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES &
EQUATIONS

7. PRIMARY & SECOND STRESSES

Primary Stresses
Those stresses that are necessary to
satisfy the conditions of static
equilibrium.

Example:
1. The membrane stresses induced
by the applied pressure
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES &
EQUATIONS
7. PRIMARY & SECOND STRESSES

Secondary Stresses
Those stresses that arise from the
constraint of adjacent parts of the
vessel.
Example:
1. Thermal stress
2. Constraints arising at flanges,
support and the change of section due
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS

1. DESIGN PRESSURE
2. DESIGN TEMPERATURE
3. MATERIALS
4. DESIGN STRESS (NOMINAL
DESIGN STRENGTH)
5. WELDED JOINT EFFICIENCY &
CONSTRUCTION CATEGORIES
6. CORROSION ALLOWANCE
7. DESIGN LOADS
8. MINIMUM PRACTICAL WALL
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
1. DESIGN PRESSURE

a) Vessels under internal pressure

The design pressure is normally taken as


the pressure at which the relief device is
set.
Normally 5-10% above the normal
working pressure.

b) Vessels under external pressure


Designed to resist the max differential
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
2. DESIGN TEMPERATURE

Metals strength decreases with


increasing temperature, so the
maximum allowable design stress
depends on the material
temperature.

The design temperature at which


the design stress is evaluated
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
3. MATERIALS

Selection of a suitable material must


take into account the suitability of
the material for fabrication
(particularly welding) as well as
compatibility of material with the
process environment.
Carbon steels, low and high alloy
steels, other alloy, clad plate and
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
4. DESIGN STRESS

Need to identify the maximum


allowable stress by applying a
suitable design stress factor
(factor of safety).

a) Materials subjected to low


temperature
- Design stress refer to yield stress &
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
b) Materials subjected to high
temperature

- Design stress based on creep


characteristic of material. Thus it
depends on;
Average stress to produce rupture
after 105 hours.
or
Average stress to produce a 1%
5
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
5. WELDED JOINT EFFICIENCY AND
CONSTRUCTION CATEGORIES

Strength of welded joint depend


on a) the type of joint and b) the
quality of the welding.

Soundness of welds is checked


by visual inspection and by non-
destructive testing (radiography).
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
Possiblelower strength of a welded joint
compared with the virgin plate is
usually allowed in design and calculated
by;

(Allowable design stress) X ( welded join


factor J)

Join factor J depends on;


1)Type of joint
Welded Joints
Butt weld
Some weld types are not
permitted by ASME BPV
Double welded Code
butt weld Many other possible
variations, including use of
Single fillet backing strips and joint
lap weld
reinforcement
Sec. VIII Div. 1 Part UW has
Double fillet details of permissible
lap weld
joints, corners, etc.
Welds are usually ground
Double fillet smooth and inspected
corner joint Type of inspection depends
on Code Division
Gasketed Joints
(a) Full face gasket
Used when vessel must be opened
(b) Gasket within bolt circle frequently for cleaning, inspection, etc.
(c) Spigot and socket Also used for instrument connections
(d) O-ring Not used at high temperatures or
pressures (gaskets fail)
Higher fugitive emissions than welded
joints
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
6. CORROSION ALLOWANCE

The additional thickness of metal added


to allow for material lost by corrosion and
erosion or scaling.

Severecorrosion is not expected (eg:


carbon and low alloy steels)
0.2mm
Severe condition are anticipated
0.4mm
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
6. CORROSION Consequences;
Plant Shutdown
Shutdown and process plants may
cause severe problems to industry and
consumers
Loss of Product
Leaking vessel cause significant loss of
product and may generate severe
accidents
Loss of efficiency
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
6. CORROSION Consequences;
Contamination
Corrosion products may contaminate
chemicals, dyes, foods consumers.
Hazard
For example plants involve
radioactive-the corrosion product in
water, fatal to human, animal and
biological.
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
7. DESIGN LOADS

A structure must be designed to


resist gross plastic deformation and
collapse under all the conditions of
loading.

Theloads to which process vessel will


be subjected in service are listed
below
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
7. DESIGN LOADS
Major & Subsidiary Loads

a) Major Loads
1) Design pressure
2) Maximum weight of the vessel and
contents, under operating
conditions.
3) Maximum weight of the vessel and
contents, under the hydraulic test
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
4) Wind Loads
5) Earthquake (seismic) loads.
6) Load supported by or reacting on
the vessel.

b) Subsidiary Loads
1) Local stresses (supports/ internal
structures and connecting pipes).
2) Shock loads (water hammer/by
surging of the vessel contents).
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
4) Stresses due to temperature
differences and differences in the
coefficient expansion of materials.
5) Loads caused by fluctuations in
temperature and pressure.
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
8. MINIMUM PRACTICAL WALL
THICKNESS

Minimum wall thickness required to


ensure any vessel is sufficiently rigid
to withstand its own weight and
incidental loads.

Therefore thickness of any vessel


should not less than value in Table 8
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
PRESSURE VESSELS
Table 8
Vessel diameter (m) Minimum thickness
(mm)
1 5
1 to 2 7
2 to 2.5 9
2.5-3.0 10
3 to 3.5 12

Notes: Value includes a corrosion


allowance of 2 mm
ENDS QUIZ TIME
1. In your word, explain what is
pressure vessel and give 1
application that use pressure vessel?

2. List 3 types of pressure vessel


design?

3. There are 8 important criteria to be


considered in a process of designing
a pressure vessel. List down the 5 of
THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE

1. CYLINDERS SHELLS

e= minimum thickness
Pi= internal pressure
Di= diameter inner
f= design stress

2. SPHERICAL SHELLS
STANDARD;
PD 5500 BS 5500
THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE

1. CYLINDERS
If a welded joint factor;

e= minimum thickness
Pi= internal pressure
Di= diameter inner
f= design stress
J= joint factor

SPHERICAL SHELL
BS 5500
THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE

3. HEADS AND CLOSURES

1. Flat plates and formed flat heads


2. Hemispherical heads
DOMED
3. Ellipsoidal heads HEAD
4. Torispherical heads
THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
1. Flat plates and formed flat heads

FLANGED PLATE WELDED PLATE

WELDED PLATE BOLTED COVER

BOLTED COVER
THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
1. Flat plates and formed flat heads

The thickness required will depend on


the degree of constraint at the plate
edge. Thus, minimum thickness;

Cp= a design constant, depend on edge


De= nominal plate diameter
f= design stress
Cp and De based on design (see page 818)
THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
Cp and De based on design (see page 818)
criteria ae

a) Flanged-only end, for diameters less than


0.6m and corner radii at least equal to 0.25e,
Cp can be taken as 0.45; De is equal to Di.

b&c) Plates welded to the end shell with a fillet


weld, angle of fillet 45o and depth equal to the
plate thickness, take Cp as 0.55 and De=Di.

d) And e) refer page 818


THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
2. Domed End

a) HEMISPHERICAL

b) ELLIPSOIDAL

c) TORISPHERICAL
Head (Closure) Designs
Hemispherical
Good for high pressures
Higher internal volume
Most expensive to form & join to shell
Half the thickness of the shell
Ellipsoidal
Cheaper than hemispherical and less
internal volume
Depth is half diameter
Same thickness as shell
Most common type > 15 bar
Torispherical
Part torus, part sphere
Similar to elliptical, but cheaper to fabricate
Cheapest for pressures less than 15 bar
THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
2. Domed End

a) Hemispherical heads

Brownell and Young (1959)- the stress


in head would then be greater than
that in cylindrical section, thus the
optimum thickness ratio is normally
taken as 0.6.
THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
2. Domed End

b)Ellipsoidal heads

Minimum thickness required;


THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
2. Domed End

c) Torispherical heads

Cs= stress concentration factor for


torispherical heads =
Rs=crown radius
Rk=knuckle radius,

Rk:Rc>0.06 prevent buckling


Example 1
Estimate the thickness required for the component parts of
the vessel shown in the diagram. The vessel is to operate
at a pressure of 14 bar (absolute) and the temperature of
300oC. The material of construction will be plain carbon
steel. Welds will be fully radiographed. A corrosion
allowance of 2 mm should be used.
Example 1
To determine cylinder shell minimum thickness,
refer;

1. Determine design pressure, Pi


2. Determine design stress, f
3. Its given Di= 1.5m
Example 1
1. Determine design pressure, Pi
Take 10% above operating pressure;

Pi= (Pabsolute-Patm) x110%


= (14-1 bar) x 1.1
= 14.3 bar = 14.3 N/mm2

2. Determine design stress, f


Refer table 13.2 (carbon steel, T=300oC)

f= 85 N/mm2

e= (14.3 N/mm2)(1.5x103mm) =12.7mm


(2x85N/mm2)-14.3N/mm2

Add corrosion allowance 12.7 + 2mm= 14.7mm (15mm)


Example 1
To determine heads minimum wall thickness;
1. Assume to be designed as torisphere.
2. Assume to be designed as ellipsoidal.

Compare which more economical.

1. Torisphere

Cs=
Example 1
1. Assume to be designed as torisphere.
Rc= Di = 1.5m
Rk= 6% Rc =1.5m x 0.06 = 0.09m
J= 1 (no joint)

Cs=

= 0.25 (3 + (1.5m/0.09m)1/2

=1.77
Thus,

E = 1.43N/mm2 x1.5x103mm x 1.77


2x 85N/mm2(1)+1.43 N/mm2(1.77-0.2)
Example 1
2. Assume to be designed as ellipsoidal.

e= (1.43 N/mm2)x(1.5x103mm)
2(1)(85N/mm2)- 0.2(1.43Nmm/2)

= 12.7mm

So an ellipsoidal head would probably be the most


economical.

Why? It takes as same thickness as wall thickness of


cylinder shell =15mm
COMPENSATION FOR
OPENINGS AND BRANCHES
All pressure vessel will have
openings for connections, man ways
and instruments fittings.

The presence of this will weakens the


shell with an increased in the stress
concentration.

Stress at edge of hole will be higher


than average stress in the
COMPENSATION FOR
OPENINGS AND BRANCHES
Therefore the reinforcement must be
provided to compensate for
weakening effect of the opening
without significantly altering the
dilation pattern of the vessel at the
opening.

3 types reinforcement;
a) Welded pad
b) Insert nozzle
COMPENSATION FOR
OPENINGS AND BRANCHES
Over-Reinforcement will reduce the
flexibility of the wall causing hard
spot, and increase the secondary
stress.

a) Welded pad
Simplest method is to weld a pad/
collar around the opening.

Outer diameter of the pad usually


COMPENSATION FOR
OPENINGS AND BRANCHES
In some condition high thermal stress can
arise due to poor thermal conductivity of
the pad to shell junction.

b) Insert nozzle

Branch can also protrude (project) into the


vessel.

This design shall be used with caution, as


protrusion will act as trap for crud and
crevices are create with corrosion.
COMPENSATION FOR
OPENINGS AND BRANCHES
c) Forged ring

Forged
reinforcing ring the most effective
method but expensive.

Butit will used for large openings/ branch


that operate under severe condition.

Refer figure 13.12 pg 1012


COMPENSATION FOR
OPENINGS AND BRANCHES

a) Welded pad

b) Insert nozzle

c) Forged ring
DESIGN VESSEL SUBJECTED
TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE
CYLINDRICAL SHELL
2 types of vessel subjected to external
pressure :-
A) vessel operated under vacuum (max
pressure 1bar)
B) jacketed vessel, max pressure
difference been taken as full jacketed
pressure.
Thin walled vessel subject to external
pressure are liable to failure through
elastic instability and the mode of failure
DESIGN VESSEL SUBJECTED
TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE
CYLINDRICAL SHELL
For open ended cylinder , critical
pressure to cause buckling is :-
(13.48)

L=the unsupported length of vessel (effective length)


Pc=critical pressure to form buckling
n=the no of lobes formed at buckling
E= Youngs Modulus
v= Poissons ratio
t= Wall Thickness
Do= External diameter
DESIGN VESSEL SUBJECTED
TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE
Long tubes and cylindrical vessel this
expansion can be simplified by
neglecting terms (2L/Do)2 in the
denominator, the equation will be
simplified to 13.49
min critical pressure occur then the
lobe (shell may buckle) is 2,
therefore equation will be simplified
as 13.50.
Most PV materials, Poissons ratio
DESIGN VESSEL SUBJECTED
TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE
For short closed vessel and long
vessel with stiffening ring, the, the
critical pressure will be higher.

The stiffening effect can be taken


into account by introducing the
collapse coefficient, Kc (13.53).
DESIGN VESSEL SUBJECTED
TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE
Kc is a function of diameter and
thickness of the vessel and the
effective L between the ends/
stiffening rings.

Critical
distance between stiffeners,
Lc (13.54)
DESIGN VESSEL SUBJECTED
TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE

Stiffening ring
DESIGN VESSEL SUBJECTED
TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE

Stiffening ring must be spaces closer


than Lc.
13.53 can be used to estimate the
critical buckling pressure and hence
thickness required to resist a given
external pressure.
Refer figure of and 13.16 and 13.15
DESIGN VESSEL SUBJECTED
TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE
Refer figure of 13.15
DESIGN VESSEL SUBJECTED
TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE
OUT OF ROUNDNESS
any roundness in a shell after
fabrication will reduce the ability of
the vessel to resist external
pressure.
A deviation from a true circular cross
section equal to the shell thickness
will reduce the critical buckling
pressure about 50%.
Ovality/ roundness is measure by:
DESIGN VESSEL
SUBJECTED TO
COMBINED LOADING
Pressure vessel are subjected to
other loads addition to pressure and
must withstand the worst condition
of loading without any failure.

Trialthickness (based on calculated


for pressure alone) must be assumed
and resultant stress from all loads
determine to ensure the maximum
allowable stress intensity do not
DESIGN VESSEL
SUBJECTED TO
COMBINED LOADING
Main source of load :-

a. Pressure
b. Dead weight of vessel and contents
c. Wind
d. Earth quake
e. External load imposed by piping/
attach equipment.
Primary stress
1. Longitudinal and circumferential stresses
due to pressure (internal or external)
PDi
h
2t
PDi
L
4t
2. Direct stress w due to weight of the
vessel, its contents and any attachments. The
dead-weight stress will normally be
significant, compare to the magnitude of the
other stress.
W
w
( Di t )t
W= total weight supported by the vessel wall.
Primary stress

Fig 13.18

wwill be tensile (positive) for points


below the plane of the
vessel supports and compressive
(negative) for points above the
support.
Primary stress

3. Bending stress depends on :-


a. Wind loads on tall self-supported vessels
b. Seismic loads on tall vessel
c. Dead weight and wind loads
on piping and equipment which is attached to vessel but offset
from the vessel centre line
d. Deposition of dead weight (horizontal vessel with saddle
support)

Mv Di
b ( t)
Iv 2

Iv
D 4
Di4
o
64

Mv = total bending
Iv =the second moment of area of the vessel about the plane
of bending.
Primary stress

Torsional shear stress- caused by


loads offset from the vessel axis.
Normally small
Not be considered in preliminary
vessels design.
T Di
( t)
I p 2

I
D4
Di4
p o
32
Allowable stress
intensity
Themaximum shear stress theory is
normally used for pressure vessel
design.

Vessel wall thickness must be


sufficient to ensure the maximum
stress intensity does not exceed the
design stress for the material
construction.
Compressive stresses and
elastic stability
Failure can occur in a thin walled process
column under an axial compressive load
by buckling of the complete vessel.

For curved plates, critical buckling stress,


Rp is the radius of curvature
13.72

E t
c
3(1 v )
2 Rp

When v = 0.3 t
c 0 .6 E
Rp 13.73

Compressive stresses and
elastic stability
13.72 can be used to predict the
maximum allowable compressive
stress to avoid buckling failure.

Forsteel at ambient temp, and E=


200,000N/mm2 and eqn 13.2 with a
factor of safety of 12 gives; eqn
(13.74)
Stiffness

Resistance buckling failure can be


increased significantly by the use of
stiffening rings/longitudinal strips.

Method for estimating the critical


buckling stress for stiffened vessels
are given in the standard- refer
BS5500
Loading
The vessel must be able to withstand load :-
a. During erection/dismantle
b. With the vessel erected but not operating
c. During testing
d. During normal operation
Weight Loads
The major source of dead weight:

a. Vessel shell
b. Vessel fittings (man ways/ nozzle)
c. Internal fittings (plates/cooling or heating
coils)
d. External fittings (ladders, platform/piping)
e. Other equipment (agitators)
f. Insulation
g. Weight of liquid to fill the vessel
Weight Loads

For vessel on skirt support, the


weight of liquid to fill the vessel will
be transferred directly to skirt.
Preliminary calcaculation of
cylindrical vessel with domed ends,
and uniform wall thickness, can be
estimated from the following
equation.
Wv C v m Dm g ( H v 0.8 Dm )t
Weight Loads

Factor
1.08 vessel with few fittings Mean diameter,
1.15 for DC etc Dm = (Di +tx10-3)
Density of
materials, kg/m3

Wv Cv m Dm g ( H v 0.8 Dm )t

9,81ms-1 Length of the


Total weight exclude cylindrical part
fitting, such plates N
Weight Loads
For steel vessel,
Wv 240Cv Dm ( H v 0.8 Dm )t

Followingvalue can be rough guide to


weight of fittings ;

a) caged ladders, steel, 360 N/m length


b) plain ladders, steel 150 N/m length
c) platform, vertical columns 1.7 kN/m2
d) contacting plates, steel 1.2 kN/m2 plate
areas
Weight Loads
Weight Loads

Insulatingmaterials (kg/m3)
Foam glass 150
Mineral wool 130
Fiberglass 100
Calcium silicate 200

These densities should be doubled to


allow for attachments fittings,
sealing and moisture absorption.
Wind Loads (tall vessel)

Wind load important to tall columns


installed in the open.
wx 2
M x X = distance measure
2 W= load per unit length

Bendingmoment at the column base


caused by concentrated load is given
by :-M F H
p p Fp = local, concentrated,
p
load
Hp= height of
concentrated load
Dynamic wind pressure
Action of wind will depend on the
shape and P
structure.
0.5C p u 2
w d a w

Pw wind pressure (load per unit area, N/m 2 )


C d drag coefficien t (shape factor)
a density of air
u w wind velocity (km/h)

Pw 0.05u w
2

For smooth cylindrical column


If the column is broken up by attachments
factor of 0.05 can be changed to 0.07
Dynamic wind pressure
Wind speed depends on the study of meteorological
records.
Wind speed of 160 km/h & wind pressure 1280 N/m 2
Wind velocity near ground will be lower than at
higher position.
Lower wind pressure is used below 20 m(about half
of the pressure)
Loading per unit length
W Pw Deff Pw = wind pressure, N/m2
Deff = effective column diameter

Deflection of tall columns


Allowable deflection less than 150 mm per 30 meter
of height.
Wind induces vibrations
Vortex shedding from tall thin columns can induce
vibration can cause premature failure of the
vessel by fatigue.
For free standing columns with height to diameter
ratio > 10

Earthquake Loading
Total shear force on vessel :-
W
Fs ae v

g

seismic constant Ce. It been determined


(ae/g)
empirically from studies of the damage.
Eccentric loads (Tall vessel)

Auxiliaryequipment to tall vessel will


subject the vessel to a bending
moment if the gravity center of the
equipment does not coincide with
the center line.
The moment may produce by heavy
equipment
M W Lsuch
e e We =as
o deadreflux
weight condenser.
Lo = distance between center of gravity and
the column center line