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Introduction to

Pneumatics
Air Production System Air Consumption System

2
What can Pneumatics do?
Operation of system valves for air, water or chemicals
Operation of heavy or hot doors
Unloading of hoppers in building, steel making, mining and chemical industries
Ramming and tamping in concrete and asphalt laying
Lifting and moving in slab molding machines
Crop spraying and operation of other tractor equipment
Spray painting
Holding and moving in wood working and furniture making
Holding in jigs and fixtures in assembly machinery and machine tools
Holding for gluing, heat sealing or welding plastics
Holding for brazing or welding
Forming operations of bending, drawing and flattening
Spot welding machines
Riveting
Operation of guillotine blades
Bottling and filling machines
Wood working machinery drives and feeds
Test rigs
Machine tool, work or tool feeding
Component and material conveyor transfer
Pneumatic robots
Auto gauging
Air separation and vacuum lifting of thin sheets
Dental drills
and so much more new applications are developed daily 3
Properties of compressed air
Availability

Storage

Simplicity of design and control

Choice of movement

Economy

4
Properties of compressed air
Reliability

Resistance to Environment

Environmentally clean.

Safety

5
What is Air?
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide
Argon
Nitrous Oxide
Water Vapor

In a typical cubic foot of air --- The weight of a


there are over 3,000,000 one square inch
particles of dust, dirt, pollen, column of air
and other contaminants. (from sea level
Industrial air may be 3 times (or more) to the outer atmosphere,
more polluted. @ 680 F, & 36% RH)
is 14.69 pounds.

6
HUMIDITY & DEWPOINT

Temperature C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
3
g/m n *(Standard) 4.98 6.99 9.86 13.76 18.99 25.94 35.12 47.19 63.03
3
g/m (Atmospheric) 4.98 6.86 9.51 13.04 17.69 23.76 31.64 41.83 54.11
Temperature C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
3
g/m n (Standard) 4.98 3.36 2.28 1.52 1.00 0.64 0.4 0.25 0.15
3
g/m (Atmospheric) 4.98 3.42 2.37 1.61 1.08 0.7 0.45 0.29 0.18

Temperature F 32 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180


g/ft3 *(Standard) .137 .188 .4 .78 1.48 2.65 4.53 7.44 11.81
g/ft3 (Atmospheric) .137 .185 .375 .71 1.29 2.22 3.67 5.82 8.94
Temperature F 32 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 40
g/ft3 (Standard) .137 .126 .083 .053 .033 .020 .012 .007 .004
g/ft3 (Atmospheric) .137 .127 .085 .056 .036 .023 .014 .009 .005

7
Pressure and Flow
10
p (bar) S = 1 mm 2
9
Example
8
P1 = 6bar
7
P1 P = 1bar
6

P2 5 P2 = 5bar
4 Q = 54 l/min
3 (1 Bar = 14.5 psi)
2 Sonic Flow
Range
1

0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Qn (54.44 l / min) 3
Q (dm n /min)
8
Air Treatment

9
Compressing Air
One cubic foot of air
Compression psig + 1 atm
ratio
=
1 atm

compressor

One cubic foot of


100 psig
7.8 cubic feet of free air
compressed air

CFM vs SCFM (at Standard conditions)


with 7.8 times the
moisture and dirt
Compressed air is always related at Standard conditions.

10
Relative Humidity
Compressor Reservoir Adsorbtion Dryer Airline
Exit Tank Drop

Compressor

1 ft3 @100 psig 1 ft3 @100 psig 1 ft3 @100 psig 1 ft3 @100 psig
1950 F 770 F -200 F 770 F
100% RH 100% RH 100% RH 0.15% RH
57.1 .73 .01 .01
grams of H20 grams of H20 grams of H20 grams of H20

56.37 .72
grams of H20 grams of H20
11
Air Mains

Dead-End
Main

Ring
Main
12
Pressure
It should be noted that the SI unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa)
1 Pa = 1 N/m2 (Newton per square meter)
This unit is extremely small and so, to avoid huge numbers in
practice, an agreement has been made to use the bar as a unit
of 100,000 Pa.
100,000 Pa = 100 kPa = 1 bar

Atmospheric Pressure
=14.696 psi =1.01325 bar =1.03323 kgf/cm2.

13
Isothermic change (Boyles Law)
with constant temperature, the pressure of a given mass of gas is inversely
proportional to its volume

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 Example P2 = ?
P1 = Pa (1.013bar)
V1 = 1m
P2 = P1 x V1
V2 = .5m
V2
P2 = 1.013 x 1
V2 = P1 x V1 .5
P2 = 2.026 bar

14
Isobaric change (Charles Law)
volume
at constant pressure, a given mass of gas increases in volume by 1 of its
for every degree C in temperature rise. 273

V1 = T1 Example V2 = ?
V2 T2 V1 = 2m
T1 = 273K (0C)
V2 = V1 x T2 T2 = 303K (30C)
T1
T2 = T1 x V2 V2 = 2 x 303
V1 273
= 2.219m

15 10
Isochoric change Law of Gay Lussac
at constant volume, the pressure is proportional to the temperature

P1 x P2 Example P2 = ?
T1 x T2 P1 = 4bar
P2 = P1 x T2 T1 = 273K (OC)
T1 T2 = 298K (25C)
T2 = T1 x P2
P2 = 4 x 298
P1
273
= 4.366bar

16
P1 = ________bar

T1 = _______C ______K

T2 = _______C ______K

17
(mm)
2.5 4 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 30
1000 100000

500 50000
400 40000
300
F (N)

250 25000
200 20000
150 p : (bar) 10 7 5 15000
125 12500
100 10000

50 5000
40 4000
30
25 2500
20 2000

F (N)
15 1500
12.5 1250
10 1000

5 500
4 400

2.5 250
32 40 50 63 80 100 125 140 160 200 250 300
(mm)

18
Force formula transposed
Example
D= FE = 1600N
4 x FE
P = 6 bar.
x P
D= 4 x 1600
3.14 x 600,000
D= 6400
1884000
D = .0583m
D = 58.3mm
A 63mm bore cylinder would be selected.

19
Load Ratio
This ratio expresses the percentage of the required force
needed from the maximum available theoretical force at a
given pressure.

L.R.= required force x 100% max.


available theoretical force

Maximum load ratios


Horizontal.70%~ 1.5:1
Vertical.50%~ 2.0:1

20
Cyl.Dia Mass (kg) 60 45 30
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
25 100 4 80
50 2.2 40
25 (87.2) (96.7) 71.5 84.9 50.9 67.4 1 20
12.5 51.8 43.6 48.3 35.7 342.5 25.4 33.7 0.5 10
32 180 - - - - - 4.4 -
90 - - - - 2.2 43.9
45 - (95.6) - 78.4 (93.1) 55.8 73.9 1.1 22
22.5 54.9 47.8 53 39.2 46.6 27.9 37 0.55 11
40 250 3.9 78
125 (99.2) 2 39
65 72.4 (86) 51.6 68.3 1 20.3
35 54.6 47.6 52.8 39 46.3 27.8 36.8 0.5 10.9
400 -- - - - 4 79.9
50
200 - _ 2 40
100 (87) (96.5) 71.3 84.8 50.8 67.3 1 20
50 50 43.5 48.3 35.7 42.4 25.4 33.6 0.5 0
63 650 4.1 81.8
300 1.9 37.8
150 (94.4) 82.3 (91.2) 67.4 80.1 48 63.6 0.9 18.9
75 47.2 41.1 45.6 33.7 40.1 24 31.8 0.5 9.4
80 1000 3.9 78.1
500 2 39
250 (97.6) 85 (94.3) 69.7 82.8 49.6 65.7 1 19.5
125 48.8 42.5 47.1 34.8 41.4 24.8 32.8 0.5 9.8
100 1600 4 79.9
800 2 40
400 (87) (96.5) 71.4 84.4 50.8 67.3 1 20
200 50 43.5 48.3 35.7 42.2 25.4 33.6 0.5 10
Table 6.16 Load Ratios for 5 bar working pressure and friction coefficients of 0.01 and 0.2
21
Speed control
The speed of a cylinder is define by the
extra force behind the piston, above the
force opposed by the load

The lower the load ratio, the better the


speed control.

22
Angle of Movement
1. If we totally neglect friction, which cylinder diameter is needed to
horizontally push a load with an 825 kg mass with a pressure of 6 bar;
speed is not important.

2. Which cylinder diameter is necessary to lift the same mass with the
same pressure of 6 bar vertically if the load ratio can not exceed 50%.

3. Same conditions as in #2 except from vertical to an angle of 30.


Assume a friction coefficient of 0.2.

4. What is the force required when the angle is increased to 45?

23
F = G (sin + cos )

F=G F = G W a =m /2 v 2 B
R a x
h
y
b c d G
A
a b c d

Y axes, (vertical lifting force).. sin x M


X axes, (horizontal lifting force).cos x x M
Total force = Y + X
= friction coefficients

24
Example
= .01
F = ________ (N)
150kg

40

Force Y = sin x M = .642 x 150 = 96.3 N

Force X = cos x x M = .766 x .01 x 150 = 1.149 N

Total Force = Y + X = 96.3 N + 1.149 N = 97.449 N

25
= __

______kg

_____

Force Y = sin x M =

Force X = cos x x M =

Total Force = Y + X =

F = ________ (N)

26
Temperature C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
3
g/m n *(Standard) 4.98 6.99 9.86 13.76 18.99 25.94 35.12 47.19 63.03
3
g/m (Atmospheric) 4.98 6.86 9.51 13.04 17.69 23.76 31.64 41.83 54.11
Temperature C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
3
g/m n (Standard) 4.98 3.36 2.28 1.52 1.00 0.64 0.4 0.25 0.15

g/m (Atmospheric) 4.98 3.42 2.37 1.61 1.08 0.7 0.45 0.29 0.18
3

27
13
Relative humidity (r.h.) = actual water content X
100% saturated quantity (dew point)

Example 1 From table 3.7 air at 25C contains


23.76 g/m

T = 25C 23.76 g/m x .65 r.h = 15.44 g/m


r.h = 65%
V = 1m

28
13
Relative Humidity Example 2

V = 10m From 3.17, 15C = 13.04 g/m


13.04 g/m x 10m = 130.4 g
T1= 15C
130.4 g x .65 r.h = 84.9 g
T2= 25C V2 = 1.013 x 10 = 1.44 m 6+
P1 = 1.013bar 1.013
P2 = 6bar From 3.17, 25C = 23.76 g/m
23.76 g/m x 1.44 m = 34.2 g
r.h = 65%
84.9 - 34.2 = 50.6 g
? H0
will condense out
50.6 g of water will condense out

29
13
V = __________m
T1= __________C
T2= __________C
P1 =__________bar
P2 =__________bar
r.h =__________%
? __________H0
will condense out

30
Formulae, for when more exact values are required
Sonic flow = P1 + 1.013 > 1.896 x (P2 + 1,013)
Pneumatic systems cannot operate under sonic flow conditions

Subsonic flow = P1 + 1.013 < 1.896 x (P2 + 1,013)

The Volume flow Q for subsonic flow equals:


Q (l/min) = 22.2 x S (P2 + 1.013) x P

31
16
Sonic / Subsonic flow

Example P1 + 1.013 ? 1.896 x (P2 + 1.013)


7 + 1.013 ? 1.896 x (6.3 + 1.013)
8.013 ? 1.896 x 7.313
P1 = 7bar
8.013 < 13.86 subsonic flow.
P2 = 6.3bar Q = 22.2 x S x (P2 + 1.013) x P
S = 12mm Q = 22.2 x 12 x (6.3 + 1.013) x .7
l/min Q = 22.2 x 12 x 7.313 x .7
Q = 22.2 x 12 x 5.119
Q = 22.2 x 12 x 2.26
Q = 602 l/min
32
16,17
P1 = _________bar

P2 = _________bar

S = _________mm

Q = ____?_____l/min

33
Receiver sizing
Example If
V = capacity of receiver Q = 5000
Q = compressor output l/min P1 = 9 bar
Pa = 1.013
Pa = atmospheric pressure
P1 = compressor output
pressure V = 5000 x 1.013 9 + 1.013
V = Q x Pa V = 5065 10.013
P1 + Pa V = 505.84 liters

34
22
35 29
36 29
The Water remains The Water runs into the
in the Pipe Auto Drain

a b

37 30
Sizing compressor air mains
Example 30 = .24 kPa/m
Q = 16800 l/min 125
P1 = 9 bar (900kPa) 16800 x .00001667 = 0.28 m/s
chart lines on Nomogram
P = .3 bar (30kPa)
L = 125 m pipe length
P = kPa/m
L
l/min x .00001667 = m/s

38
31
3 4"
100
2 90

1.5 3" 80
2 3.0 1
2.5 70

2.25 2.5"
60
2.0 0.5
3 1.75 2"
0.4
1.5 50
0.3
4
0.2
1.0 1.5" 40
5 0.9 0.15
0.8
6 0.1 1.25" 35
0.7
7 0.6
30
8 0.5 0.05 1"
9 0.4 0.04 25
10 0.03
0.3 0.025
11 0.02
12 0.25 3/4"
0.015 20
0.2
0.01
Line 1/2"
Pressure 0.15 15
(bar)
3/8"

X
3
p Q (m n /s
kPa / m
= bar /100 m
Pipe Length Reference Inner Pipe Dia.,
Line mm
39 33
Type of Fitting Nominal pipe size (mm)
15 20 25 30 40 50 65 80 100 125
Elbow 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.4 3.2
90* Bend (long) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.5
90* Elbow 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.9 5.4 7.1
180* Bend 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.2 1.7 2.0 2.6 3.7 4.1
Globe Valve 0.8 1.1 1.4 2.0 2.4 3.4 4.0 5.2 7.3 9.4
Gate Valve 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.2
Standard Tee 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.5
Side Tee 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.4 1.6 2.1 2.7 3.7 4.1 6.4
Table 4.20 Equivalent Pipe Lengths for the main fittings

40 34
Sizing compressor air mains
Example 2 30kPa = 0.22kPa/m
135m
Add fittings to example 1
Chart lines on Nomogram
From table 4.20
2 elbows @ 1.4m = 2.8m
2 90 @ 0.8m = 1.6m
6 Tees @ 0.7m = 4.2m
2 valves @ 0.5m = 1.0m
Total = 9.6m
125m + 9.6 = 134.6m
=135m

41 31
3 4"
100
2 90

1.5 3" 80
2 3.0 1
2.5 70

2.25 2.5"
60
2.0 0.5
3 1.75 2"
0.4
1.5 50
0.3
4
0.2
1.0 1.5" 40
5 0.9 0.15
0.8
6 0.1 1.25" 35
0.7
7 0.6
30
8 0.5 0.05 1"
9 0.4 0.04 25
10 0.03
0.3 0.025
11 0.02
12 0.25 3/4"
0.015 20
0.2
0.01
Line 1/2"
Pressure 0.15 15
(bar)
3/8"

X
3
p Q (m n /s
kPa / m
= bar /100 m
Pipe Length Reference Inner Pipe Dia.,
Line mm
42
33
Using the ring main example on page 29 size for the
following requirements:

Q = 20,000 l/min
P1 = 10 bar (_________kPa)
P = .5 bar (_________kPa)
L = 200 m pipe length

P = kPa/m
L
l/min x .00001667 = m/s
43
Aftercooler

Tank
Refrigerated 1
Air Dryer
Auto
Drain
a
2
Compressor Auto
Drain
3
a Micro Filter
a
4
b Sub-micro Filter
c Odor Removal Filter
a b
5
d Adsorbtion Air
Dryer
a b c
6
7
a d b

44 39
Example
P = 7 bar (700,000 N/m)
D = 63mm (.063m)
d = 15mm (.015m)
F = x (D -d) x P 4
F = 3.14 x (.063 - .015) x 700,000 4
F = 3.14 x (.003969 - .0.000225) x 700,000 4
F = .785 x .003744 x 700,000
F = 2057.328 N

45
54
(mm)
2.5 4 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 30
1000 100000

500 50000
400 40000
300
F (N)

250 25000
200 20000
150 p : (bar) 10 7 5 15000
125 12500
100 10000

50 5000
40 4000
30
25 2500
20 2000

F (N)
15 1500
12.5 1250
10 1000

5 500
4 400

2.5 250
32 40 50 63 80 100 125 140 160 200 250 300
(mm)
46
Example

Calculate remaining force


M = 100kg 401.9 x 48.8 (.488) = 196N
P = 5bar 100
= 32mm assume a cylinder efficiency of 95%
= 0.2 196 x 95 = 185.7 N
100
Newtons = kg m/s , therefor
F = /4 x Dx P = 401.9 N
185.7 N = 185.7 kg m/s
divide mass into remaining force
From chart 6.16
m/s = 185.7 kg m/s
90KG = 43.9% Lo. 100kg
To find Lo for 100kg
43.9 x 100= 48.8 % Lo.
90 = 1.857 m/s

47
M = _______kg

P = _______bar

= _______mm

= 0.2

F = /4 x Dx P = 401.9 N
48
Air Flow and Consumption
Air consumption of a cylinder is defined as:
piston area x stroke length x number of single strokes per minute x absolute pressure in bar.

b c

Q = D (m) x x (P + Pa) x stroke(m) x # strokes/min x 1000


4

49
Working Pressure in bar
Piston dia. 3 4 5 6 7
20 0.124 0.155 0.186 0.217 0.248
25 0.194 0.243 0.291 0.340 0.388
32 0.319 0.398 0.477 0.557 0.636
40 0.498 0.622 0.746 0.870 0.993
50 0.777 0.971 1.165 1.359 1.553
63 1.235 1.542 1.850 2.158 2.465
80 1.993 2.487 2.983 3.479 3.975
100 3.111 3.886 4.661 5.436 6.211
Table 6.19 Theoretical Air Consumption of double acting cylinders from 20 to 100 mm dia,
in liters per 100 mm stroke

Example. From table 6.19... 80 at 6 bar = 3.479 (3.5)l/100mm stroke

Qt = Q x stroke(mm) x # of extend + retract strokes


= 80
100
stroke = 400mm
Qt = 3.5 x 400 x 24
s/min = 12 x 2 100
P = 6bar. Qt = 3.5 x 4 x 24

Qt = 336 l/min.

50
Peak Flow
For sizing the valve of an individual cylinder we need to
calculate Peak flow. The peak flow depends on the
cylinders highest possible speed. The peak flow of all
simultaneously moving cylinders defines the flow to which
the FRL has to be sized.

To compensate for adiabatic change, the theoretical


volume flow has to be multiplied by a factor of 1.4. This
represents a fair average confirmed in a high number of
practical tests.

Q = 1.4 x D (m) x x (P + Pa) x stroke(m) x # strokes/min x 1000


4

51
Working Pressure in bar
Piston dia. 3 4 5 6 7
20 0.174 0.217 0.260 0.304 0.347
25 0.272 0.340 0.408 0.476 0.543
32 0.446 0.557 0.668 0.779 0.890
40 0.697 0.870 1.044 1.218 1.391
50 1.088 1.360 1.631 1.903 2.174
63 1.729 2.159 2.590 3.021 3.451
80 2.790 3.482 4.176 4.870 5.565
100 4.355 5.440 6.525 7.611 8.696
Table 6.20 Air Consumption of double acting cylinders in liters
per 100 mm stroke corrected for losses by adiabatic change

Example. From table 6.20... 80 at 6 bar = 4.87 (4.9)l/100mm stroke

Qt= Q x stroke(mm) x # of extend + retract strokes


= 80
100
stroke = 400mm Qt = 4.9 x 400 x 24 100
s/min = 12 x 2 Qt = 4.9 x 4 x 24
P = 6bar

Qt = 470.4 l/min.

52
Formulae comparison

Q = 1.4 x D (m) x x (P + Pa) x stroke(m) x # strokes/min x 1000


4

Q = 1.4 x .08 x .785 x ( 6 + 1.013) x .4 x 24 x 1000

Q = 1.4 x .0064 x .785 x 7.013 x .4 x 24 x 1000

Q = 473.54

53
Q = 1.4 x D (m) x x (P + Pa) x stroke(m) x # strokes/min x 1000
4

= _______mm

stroke = _______mm

s/min = _______ x 2

P =_______bar

54
Inertia
Example 1 J= m (kg) x a (m)
a
12
J= 10 x .03
12
J= 10 x .0009
12
m = 10kg
J = .00075
a = 30mm
j = ___?

55
Inertia
Example 2 J = ma x a + mb x b
a b 3
3
J = 3 x .01 + 6 x .02
3
3
J = 3 x .0001 + 6 x .0004
m = 9 kg 3
a = 10mm 3
J = .0001 + .0008
b = 20mm
J = ___?
J = .0009

56
m = ________ kg
a b

a = _________mm

b = _________mm

J = _________?

57
Valve identification
A(4) B(2)

EA P EB

58
Valve Sizing
The Cv factor of 1 is a flow capacity of one US
Gallon of water per minute, with a pressure drop
of 1 psi.
The kv factor of 1 is a flow capacity of one liter
of water per minute with a pressure drop of 1bar.
The equivalent Flow Section S of a valve is
the flow section in mm2 of an orifice in a
diaphragm, creating the same relationship
between pressure and flow.

59
Q = 400 x Cv x (P2 + 1.013) x P x 273
273 +

Q = 27.94 x kv x (P2 + 1.013) x P x 273


273 +

Q = 22.2 x S x (P2 + 1.013) x P x 273


273 +
1 Cv = 1 kv = 1S=
The normal flow Qn for other various flow capacity units is: 981.5 68.85 54.44
The Relationship between these units is as follows: 1 14.3 18
0.07 1 1.26
0.055 0.794 1

60
Flow example

Q = 22.2 x S x (P2 + 1.013) x P x 273


S = 35 273 +

P1 = 6 bar
Q = 22.2 x 35 x (5.5+ 1.013) x .5 x 273
P2 =5.5 bar 273 + 25

= 25C Q = 22.2 x 35 x 6.613 x .5 x 273


298

Q = 22.2 x 35 x 6.613 x .5 x 273


298

Q = 22.2 x 35 x 1.89 x .957

Q = 1405.383
61
Cv = ________ between 1 -5

P1 = ________bar

P2 = ________5 bar

= ________C

62
Flow capacity formulae transposed
Cv = Q 400 x (P2 + 1.013) x P

Kv = Q 27.94 x (P2 + 1.013) x P


S = Q 22.2 x (P2 + 1.013) x P

63
Flow capacity example

Q = 750 l/min S = Q
P1 = 9 bar 22.2 x (P2 + 1.013) x P
P = 10% S = 750
S = ? 22.2 x (8.1 + 1.013) x .9
S = 750
22.2 x 9.113 x .9
S = 750
22.2 x 2.86
S = 750 S = 11.81
63.49

64
Q = _________ l/min

P1 = _________ bar

P = _________%

Cv = _________ ?

65
Orifices in a series connection
S total = 1
1 + 1 + 1
S1 S2 S3
S total = 1
Example 1 + 1 + 1
S1 = 12mm 12 18 22
S2 = 18mm
S3 = 22mm S total = 1
1 + 1 + 1
144 324 484

S total = 1 = 1
.00694 + .00309 + .00207 .0121

S total = 9.09
66
Cv = _________
Cv = _________
Cv = _________
Cv total = ________

67
2
S mm

60
9

50

40 7.5

30

6
20

10 4

0 3
0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10
Tube Length in
m

68
Tube Material Length Fittings Total
Dia. 1m 0.5 m Insert type One Touch 0.5 m tube +
(mm) straight elbow straight elbow 2 strt. fittings
4 x 2.5 N,U 1.86 3.87 1.6 1.6 1.48
5.6 4.2 3.18
6x4 N,U 6.12 7.78 6 6 3.72
13.1 11.4 5.96
8x5 U 10.65 13.41 11 (9.5) 11 6.73
18 14.9 9.23
8x6 N 16.64 20.28 17 (12) 16 10.00
26.1 21.6 13.65
10 x 6.5 U 20.19 24.50 35 (24) 30 12.70
29.5 25 15.88
10 x 7.5 N 28.64 33.38 30 (23) 26 19.97
41.5 35.2 22.17
12 x 8 U 33.18 39.16 35 (24) 30 20.92
46.1 39.7 25.05
12 x 9 N 43.79 51.00 45 (27) 35 29.45
58.3 50.2 32.06
Table 7.30 Equivalent Flow Section of current tube connections

69
Average piston speed in mm/s
dia. mm 50 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 750 1000
8,10 0.1 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.75 1
12,16 0.12 0.23 0.36 0.46 0.6 0.72 1 1.2 1.8 2.4
20 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.6 2 3 4
25 0.35 0.67 1 1.3 1.7 2 2.7 3.4 5 6.7
32 0.55 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.7 4.4 5.5 8.5 11
40 0.85 1.7 2.6 3.4 4.3 5 6.8 8.5 12.8 17
50 1.4 2.7 4 5.4 6.8 8.1 10.8 13.5 20.3 27
63 2.1 4.2 6.3 8.4 10.5 12.6 16.8 21 31.5 42
80 3.4 6.8 10.2 13.6 17 20.4 27.2 34 51 68
100 5.4 10.8 16.2 21.6 27 32.4 43.2 54 81 108
125 8.4 16.8 25.2 33.6 42 50.4 67.2 84 126 168
140 10.6 21.1 31.7 42.2 52.8 62 84.4 106 158 211
160 13.8 27.6 41.4 55.2 69 82.8 110 138 207 276
Equivalent Flow Section in mm2

Table 7.31 Equivalent Section S in mm2 for the valve and the tubing, for 6
bar working pressure and a pressure drop of 1 bar (Qn Conditions)

70
Flow Amplification

71
Signal Inversion

72
Selection

red
green

73
Memory Function

red
green

74
Delayed switching on

75
Delayed switching off

76
Pulse on switching on

77
Pulse on releasing a valve

78
Direct Operation and Speed Control

79
Control from two points: OR Function

Shuttle Valve

80
Safety interlock: AND Function

81
Safety interlock: AND Function

1 2

82
Inverse Operation: NOT Function

83
B A

Direct Control P
84
Holding the end positions B A

85

Cam valve

Semi Automatic return of a cylinder

86

Repeating Strokes

87
2 4

Sequence Control
3

1 2
88
A+ A- B+ B-

b0 a1

start
ao
b1

Signals Start a1 b1 a0 b0

Commands A+ B+ A- B-
89
ISO SYMBOLS for AIR TREATMENT EQUIPMENT

Air Cleaning and Drying

Air Cooler Air Dryer Air Heat


Auto Drain Refrigerated Heater Exchanger
Air Dryer

Water Filter Filter / Filter / Multi stage Lubricator


Separator Separator Separator Micro Filter
w. Auto Drain

Pressure Regulation

Basic Adjustable Pressure Regulator Differential Pressure


Symbol Setting Regulator with relief Pressure Gauge
Spring Regulator

Units

FRL Unit,
FRL Unit, detailed simplified 90
Single Acting Cylinder, Single Acting Cylinder,
Spring retract Spring extend

Double Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder with


adjustable air cushioning

Double Acting Cylinder, Rotary Actuator,


with double end rod double Acting

91
Return Spring (in fact not an Mechanical (plunger):
operator, but a built-in element)
Roller Lever: one-way Roller Lever:

Manual operators: general: Lever:

Push Button: Push-Pull Button:

Detent for mechanical and manual operators (makes a monostable valve bistable):
Air Operation is shown by drawing the (dashed) signal pressure line to the side of
the square; the direction of the signal flow can be indicated by a triangle:
Air Operation for piloted operation is shown by a rectangle with a triangle. This
symbol is usually combined with another operator.
Direct solenoid operation solenoid piloted operation

92
Input Input
Manual Closed connected to Return Manual Closed connected to Return
Operation Input Output Spring Operation Input Output Spring

OR

Manually Operated,
Normally Open 3/2 valve
(normally passing)
with Spring
Return
Exhaust Air Supply

Input Input closed, Input Input closed,


Mechanical connected to Output Return connected to Output Return
Operation Mechanical
Output exhausted Spring Operation Output exhausted Spring

OR

Mechanically
normally closed 3/2
Operated,
(non-passing)
Valve with Spring Return

Air Supply Exhaust


93
Manually operated Valves
detent, must correspond with valve position

no pressure pressure no pressure pressure

3/2, normally closed 3/2, normally open 3/2, normally closed/normally open
monostable valves never operated bistable valves: both positions possible

Electrically and pneumatically operated Valves


Air operated valves may be operated in rest

no pressure pressure

Solenoids are never operated in rest

Mechanically operated Valves


No valve with index "1" is operated.
no pressure pressure

an1 an1

All valves with index "0" are operated.


pressure no pressure

an
0
an
0
94
First stroke of the cycle Last stroke of the cycle
A B C

A+ A- B+ B- C

POWER Level

LOGIC Level
Memories,
AND's, OR's,
Timings etc.

Start

SIGNAL INPUT Level Codes: a 0 , a1 , b0 , b , c0


1
and c1 .

95