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CHAPTER 4

:
AGITATION AND MIXING
PRESENTED BY:
NUR SYAZWANI BINTI ANUAR
NUR NABILAH BINTI KHAIRUL ANUAR
RAJA SYAZWINA BINTI RAJA HAFIZ
WAZIRR BIN HISHAM
NURUL SYAKIRAH BINTI AB RAHMAN

LECTURER’S NAME:
MADAM SALAMIAH BINTI ZAKARIA

Agitation
 It is an induced circularly motion of the material in a container in
a desired way.
 Material is agitated by a stirrer or mixer that is made up of shaft
that connects motor and the impeller.

Mixing
 It is a random distribution of materials in different phases into
another phases forming a homogenous phase.

2. Blending miscible liquids. e. . Promotes heat transfer between the liquid in the tank or container and a coil or jacket surrounding the container.g. methyl alcohol (CH2O) and water (H2O). 5. Dissolving solids in liquids.Purposes of Agitation 1. Suspending of fine solid particles in a liquid. 4. Dispersing a gas in a liquid as fine bubbles. 3.

DESIGN OF AGITATED VESSEL Agitated vessel had been designed consists of: • Motor • Speed reducer • Shaft • Impeller • Baffle • Jacket • Thermowell Typical agitation vessel .

• Round bottom shape: To eliminate corners where fluid cannot penetrate • Motor: Adjust the speed of agitation of impeller • Speed reducer: Control the agitation speed • Shaft: A rotating member with impeller mounted on and driven by motor which is used for agitation or mixing purpose. • Impeller: Creates a flow pattern • Baffle: Reduce tangential motion of fluid • Jacket: Made up of coil and involve in heat transfer to liquid • Thermowell: Protect the temperature sensing elements (thermocouples) from breaking and allow the elements to be remove for service without need to shutdown the process .

TYPES OF IMPELLER Propeller Paddles Turbines .

PROPELLER • Propeller agitators’ blades are commonly attached to the main shaft. Its tapering blade can minimize the effect of centrifugal force and produce a maximum axial flow. • They are flexible in operations and mostly used in mechanical mixing of low to medium viscosity fluids. .

Standard 3-blade Weedless .

They are used where an uniform laminar flow of liquids is desired. PADDLES • Paddle agitator is a agitator with blades that reach up to the tank wall. • Suitable for stirring low and middle viscosity liquids at moderate speeds .

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• Turbine has an excellent feature in designing the flow patter where a change in design can divert the flow pattern of fluid by radial flow or axial flow in the reactor vessel. . TURBINE • Turbine agitator is multi-bladed paddle agitator. It can create a turbulent movement of fluids due to the combination of centrifugal and rotational motion.

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. AGITATOR APPLICATION ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE MODEL • Less Metzner – PROPELLER • Dairy and food Ott shear rate • Motion of liquid processing constant starts on one spot • Standard 3 • Increase the • Dead spots • Chemicals blades homogeneity/Ho formation at high • Weedless processing mogenization rotation speeds • Good miscibility • Heavy duty PADDLE mixing • High power • Flat paddles • Solid mixing • Adjustable to 2 or consumption • Finger paddles • Slurry mixing 4 blades • Inefficient liquid • Gate paddles • Excellent for low circulation speed TURBINE • Liquid and gas • Excellent for reactions • Only for less • Straight blade dispersion • Highly used viscous liquid • Pitched blade operations during reaction below 15 to 20 • Vaned disk • Creates good and extraction Ns/m2 • Curved blade radial flow operations.

. Flow Pattern in Agitation Vessel Can be categorized into three : 1) Axial Flow  Parallel to the shaft  More energy efficient than radial flow mixing.  Used for blending and solids suspension.  More effective at lifting solids from the base of the tank.

 Used for dispersion .  The currents travel outward to the vessel wall and then either upward or downward.2) Radial Flow  Perpendicular to the shaft.  Higher energy is required compared to axial flow impellers.

 The higher the speed .3) Tangential / Swirling Flow  Tangential to the circular path  Tangential or swirling flow field is ineffective at dispersing the solids (grouped below the impeller). vortex is formed and may be so deep that it reaches the impeller.  At high impeller speeds.  Large surface vortex is visible at the top of the shaft. . the deeper the vortex.

How to prevent swirling in agitation vessel Two ways to prevent swirling  Installing baffles in tank  Mixer mounting -Offset angle mounting of mixers -Offset vertical mounting of mixers .

flat plates attached to the side of tank • Commonly used in cylindrical tank for blending solid suspension • Suitable for large tanks with vertical agitators • Promote the movement of fluid from top to bottom . 1) Installing baffle in tank • Is a long.

MP4 .YouTube.Mixer Agitator with Tank Baf es .

2) Mixer mounting Offset angle mounting Offset vertical of mixers mounting of mixers • Impeller is mounted • Mixer be offset by approximately 10-15⁰ being placed vertically from the vertical in tank • The rule is to offset the mixer for 1/6th of the total diameter tank .

MP4 t 1 .YouTube.BRAWN Mixer Smarts Part BRAWN Mixer Smarts Par 3 .YouTube.MP4 .

THE END .