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Module 10 - 1

RT Equipment
Radiation source Densitometer /

X-ray machine film density
Gamma radiation strips
source
Film processor
Radiation monitor
Film viewers
Film holders
IQIs

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Module 10 - 2
Orientation of Source, Plate,
& Film

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Module 10 - 3

RT Advantages
Detects subsurface flaws
Used for all materials
Film is permanent record
If stored properly

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Module 10 - 4

RT Limitations
Radiation hazard
Requires access to both sides
Flaw orientation
Flaw types
Film interpretation

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Module 10 - 5

RT Results
Film
Video tape
Sketches

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Module 10 - 6

Ultrasonic Testing

Based on the propagation of sound


waves through materials, and the
reflected echo from density changes.

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Piezoelectric Effect

Refers to materials which can convert


electrical energy to mechanical energy
and vice versa.

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Module 10 - 8

Principles of Sound
Sound travels within a given material at a
constant velocity, based in part, on
material density. Sound will not travel in a
vacuum. There are several types of sound
waves:

Longitudinal (straight beam)


Shear (angle beam)
Others not pertinent to weld inspection

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Module 10 - 9

UT Equipment & Operation


Electronic base unit
Piezoelectric transducer
Calibration blocks

Couple probe to part with couplant


Carry out testing
Evaluate signals

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Module 10 - 10

UT Process

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Module 10 - 11

Longitudinal
Calibration

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UT Process - 1 of 2

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UT Process - 2 of 2

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Module 10 - 14

Angle Beam
Testing of
Weld

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Weld Testing - 1 of 2

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Module 10 - 16

Weld Testing - 2 of 2

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UT Advantages
A true volumetric test
One side access
Very accurate
Deep penetration - 200
Critical flaws found
Equipment fully portable

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UT Limitations
Highly skilled operator
Smooth surfaces
Groove welds > 1/4 thick

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Module 10 - 19

Eddy Current Testing

Based on the principle of eddy currents


being formed in conductive materials in
the presence of an AC coil and changes in
those eddy currents by material changes.

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Test
Coil

Induced Eddy
Currents

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ET Uses
Flaw detection
Metal thickness
Coating thickness
Metal hardness
Heat treatment

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Module 10 - 22

ET CRT
Displays

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Module 10 - 23

ET Equipment
Base unit, CRT or meter
AC probe (coil)
Calibration standards

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Module 10 - 24

ET Advantages
No contact required with part
No couplant required
Readily Automated
Applicable to all metals

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ET Limitations
Highly skilled operator
Too sensitive
Shallow penetration - 3/16
Calibration standards required
Requires surface cleanliness
Magnetic materials more difficult

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NDE Symbols
Similar to weld symbols
Shorthand notation
Very useful
Combine with weld symbols

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Standard Location of
Elements for NDE Symbols

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NDE Test Methods - Module 10 - 28

Abbreviations
1 of 2
Acoustic Emission AET
Eddy Current ET
Leak LT
Magnetic Particle MT
Neutron Radiography NRT

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NDE Test Methods - Module 10 - 29

Abbreviations
2 of 2
Penetrant PT
Proof PRT
Radiography RT
Ultrasonic UT
Visual VT

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WIT Summary
Have covered much material in 3 days
Workbook and Sample Fundamentals
Exam are good guides to your grasp of
each Module, and may point towards
areas needing more study in Manual
Urge all to study these subjects in
greater depth as part of continuing
education

Am e r i c a n We l d i n g S o c i e t y