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DESIGN AND

OPTIMIZATION OF DRIVE
SHAFT WITH COMPOSITE
PRESENTED BY:
NAME: USN:
1. AAYUSH ANAND IJS14ME001
2. ABHISHEK SHUKLA 1JS14ME005
3. AMAN SALAKA 1JS14ME008
4. AMIT KUMAR PODDAR 1JS14ME011
5. ANKIT KUMAR SINGH 1JS14ME016
6. ANMOL AGARWAL 1JS14ME018
7. BIBHASH KUNDU 1JS14ME027
8. PILLAI AKHIL 1JS14ME058
9. RAHUL KUMAR 1JS14ME065
ABSTRACT
SHAFTS are a basic, important and very common
machine element.

A shaft is usually designed to perform a specific task in


a specific machine. There may of course be thousands of
similar machines produced, each using a shaft of that
design, and the manufacturer may provide extra shafts
as "spare parts", but that shaft design generally has no
use outside the machine for which it was designed. It
follows that designers will frequently be called upon to
design shafts and it is therefore important for them to
understand the requirements of shafts and the design
features needed to fulfil these requirements.
DEFINITIONS
Since shafts take on several different configurations and are used for many different
purposes, several different definitions are in common use, as listed below. The
nomenclature is not always clear cut and there is often an overlap of function and
therefore of definition.

Shaft
In general, a ROTATING member used for the transmission of power.

Axle
Generally a STATIONARY member used as a support for rotating members such as
bearings, wheels, idler gears, etc.

Spindle
A short shaft, usually of small diameter, usually rotating, e.g. valve spindle for gate
valve, but consider also the HEADSTOCK SPINDLE of a lathe, which is quite large
and usually has a hole right through its center

Stub shaft
A shaft which is integral with an engine, motor or prime mover and is of suitable size,
shape and projection to allow its easy connection to other shafts.
Line shaft
A shaft connected to a prime mover which transmits power to a number of
machines now mostly superseded by machines having individual motors.
Jack shaft
A short shaft used to connect a prime mover to a machine or another shaft.
May also be a short shaft placed as an intermediate shaft between a prime
mover and driven machine.
Flexible shaft
Permits the transmission of power between two shafts (e.g. motor shaft and
machine shaft) whose rotational axes are at an angle or where the angle
between the shafts may change.

INTRODUCTION
A driveshaft is a rotating shaft that transmits power from the
engine to the differential gear of a rear wheel drive vehicles
Driveshaft must operate through constantly changing angles
between the transmission and axle.
Steel drive shafts are usually manufactured in two pieces to

increase the fundamental bending natural frequency because


the bending natural frequency of a shaft is inversely
proportional to the square of beam length and proportional to
the square root of specific modulus.
Substituting composite structures for conventional metallic

structures has many advantages because of higher specific


stiffness and higher specific strength of composite materials.
Composite materials can be tailored to efficiently meet the
design requirements of strength, stiffness and composite drive
shafts weight less than steel or aluminum of similar strength.
This study provides the analysis of the design in many aspects.
SPECIFICATIONS OF A SHAFT

A preliminary drawing of a SHAFT drawn


for design purposes.
FUNCTIONS OF
SHAFTS
As previously noted, shafts transmit power. Since
P = T , this implies both ROTATION and the transmission of
TORQUE shafts locate members such as gears and pulleys in
their correct relative positions.
Shafts connect members such as gears together and transmit

torque from one member to another. The intermediate shaft of


the double reduction gear train transmits torque from one gear
to the other on the same shaft. The input and output shafts
transmit torque between the single gear on each of these shafts
and some other component (such as a belt pulley or chain
wheel) which will be mounted on the projecting end of the
shaft. Note that these are simplified diagrams. In practice,
shafts usually have numerous changes in diameter to
accommodate bearings, gears and other components mounted
on them, as well as features such as keyways and splines (see
later in this project) to provide torque transmission. Which is a
sectioned elevation of a commercial vehicle gearbox.
SHAFT MATERIALS
Most shafts are made from steel, either low- or
medium-carbon. However, high quality alloy
steel, usually heat treated, may be chosen for
critical applications.
Other metals, e.g. brass, stainless steel or
aluminum, may be used where corrosion is a
problem or lightness is required.
Small, light-duty shafts, e.g. in household
appliances, may be injection- molded in a plastic
material such as nylon or Delran.

DESIGN OF COMPOSITE DRIVE


SHAFT
Specification of the problem
The fundamental natural bending frequency for passengers cars, small
trucks and vans of the propeller shaft should be higher than 2,400 rpm to
avoid whirling vibration and the torque transmission capability of the drive
shaft should be larger than 154 Nm. The drive shaft outer diameter should
not exceed 100 mm due to space limitations.
Assumptions
1. The shaft rotates at a constant speed about its longitudinal axis.
The shaft has a uniform, circular cross section.
2. The shaft is perfectly balanced, all damping and nonlinear effects are
excluded.
3. The stress-strain relationship for composite material is linear and elastic;
hence, Hooks law is applicable for composite materials. Since lamina is
thin and no out-of-plane loads are applied, it is considered as under the
plane stress.
SIMULATED RESULTS FOR
HOLLOW SHAFT IN ANSYS
Deformation results
It observed from above analysis
results deformation value for steel
shaft is 0.59mm.

Shear stress values


It observed from above analysis
results Shear stress value for steel
shaft is 28Mpa

Von-Mises stress
It observed from above analysis
results von-Misses value for steel
shaft is 96Mpa
CONT.
By comparing the theoretical values and hollow shaft analysis values it is
observed that the calculated deformation value is 0.69 mm and the simulated
value for deformation is .599 mm, Shear stress value calculated is 20.78Mpa for
simulated it was 28Mpa, And for von-misses those values are 66Mpa and 96Mpa
these results shows variation between theoretical and simulated up to 5.4 % only

Torsional load comparison Deformation comparison Von-mises Stress comparison


MODELING AND SIMULATION
In this section the 3D CAD models and 3D FE
Models along with the loads and boundary
conditions will be presented.
Step1: 3D CATIA Model Creation was done
based on considered Specifications and design
consideration from Toyota Qualis specifications.
CONT.
Step2: 3D FE Model Creation The 3D FE model for
drive shaft was created by using FE modeling software
HYPERMESH v10.0. The mesh has been generated
using 2nd order Hexa elements (SOLID 95 and Solid
186) in Hypermesh.

Hypermesh model with brick (solid 95 with contact elements)


CONT.
Step-3: using above hypermesh model with boundary conditions in
ansys12.0 required results are predicted.

Step-4;By applying boundary conditions and loading conditions


obtained results will compared and suitable material suggested
which gives less torsional value and frequency nearer to steel.
FINDING STRESS INTENSITY
VALUE
Being able to determine the rate of crack growth, an engineer can
schedule inspection accordingly and repair or replace the part before
failure happens. Being able to predict the path of a crack helps a
designer to incorporate adequate geometric tolerance in structural
design to increase the part life. The methodology used to investigate
the mechanics of crack propagation consists of the following steps
Step 1: Introducing crack with 1mm width and 3mm depth in Catia

geometric model
Step 2: Creating 3D FE model by using Hypermesh and creating

fine mesh at crack located area. Using contact elements at universal


joint locations
Step3: Applying Boundary conditions and to solve to get shear stress

value at different locations nearer to crack tip


Step 4: Using above predicted values to plot graphs for finding stress

intensity values for both Steel and Composite shafts


Step 5: Interpretation of results for both Steel and composite

Intensity values
ELEMENTS USED FOR ANALYSIS
AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS
S Generic element type Ansys Name Description
. name
No
1 20 Node Solid 95 20 Node
Quadratic structural solid
Hexahedron

2 20 Node Solid 186 20 Node


Quadratic structural solid
Hexahedron

3 Quadratic Conta 174 3D 8 Node


Quadrilateral surface to surface
Contact contact
MATERIAL PROPERTIES USED
FOR ANALYSIS
S L no Property Steel Kevla units
(SM r/
45C) Epoxy
1 Young's 2.07e1 95.71e pa
Modulus X 1 9
direction
(E11)
2 Young's - 10.45e pa
Modulus Y 9
direction
(E23)
3 Young's - 10.45e pa
Modulus Z 9
CONT.
4 Major 0.3 0.34
Poisson's
Ratio XY ()
5 Major - 0.37
Poisson's
Ratio YZ ()
6 Major - 0.34
Poisson's
Ratio XZ ()
7 Shear - 25.08e pa
Modulus XY 9
(12)
8 Shear - 25.08e pa
Modulus YZ 9
(23)
9 Shear - 25.08e pa
Modulus XZ 9
(31)
ANALYSIS RESULTS:

Steel shaft deformation results Kevlar/Epoxy drive shaft deformation


results

By considering above results it is observed that steel shaft having deformation


value of 0.589 mm and Kevlar / epoxy drive shaft having deformation value of 8.1
mm
EIGEN BUCKLING RESULTS (INZ
DIRECTION)

Steel shaft buckling Kevlar/Epoxy buckling stress valuesanalysis of shaft with crac
Torsional

It is observed from above anlysis of bucklig


results both shafts having buckling values of
27Mpa
STEEL SHAFT WITH CUT SECTION
WITH STRESSES AT CRACK TIP
By considering graph plotted between Distance (r) and
stress r from crack tip the stress intensity factor K III
value for steel shaft is observed as 0.13Mpamm.

Steel shaft with crack tip cross-section Steel Shaft intensity Graph
KEVLAR/EPOXY SHAFT WITH CUT SECTION WITH STRESSES AT CRACK TIP
By considering graph plotted between Distance (r)
and stress r from crack tip the stress intensity
factor KIII value for composite shaft is observed as
0.012 Mpamm

Composite shaft with crack tip cross-section Composite Shaft intensity Graph
RESULTS SUMMARY
Material Steel Kevlar/Epoxy

Deformation in mm 0.5816 8.16

Number of layers - 2

Angle of ply - 45

Natural Frequey in 3.76 2.04


HZ
Trosional Stress 53.80 49.82
value in N/mm2
Buckl-ing Stress 27.45 27.23
Value inN/mm2
Weight reduction in - 23
%
STRESS INTENSITY
VALUES
S.No Material Stress
Intensity
value in
Mpamm.
1 Steel 0.13
2 Kevlar/Epo 0.012
xy
COOLING TOWER AND DRIVE
SHAFT
With the increase in demand for high torque
capability for long span drive shafts, we have
developed our composite drive shaft to serve
challenging industrial need.
These are highly engineered, non lubricated,
single span, advanced composite drive shaft for
superior load applications and rugged
environment. This has only been possible through
our rich experience in the cooling tower
industries.
FEATURES OF DRIVE SHAFT FOR
INDUSTRIAL COOLING TOWER
APPLICATIONS
Inherent corrosion resistance
High misalignment capability

High strength to weight ratio

Superior fatigue life

Smoother operation

Easy installation
KEY FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES (CARBON FIBER)
Dimensional stability
The lower coefficient of thermal expansion of superior composites that
are used results in higher dimensional stability of the drive shaft
resulting in reduced stresses, vibrations and increase in service life
Independent of direction of rotation

The drive shafts are designed to rotate in both directions and so are
well suited for reverse operations as well
Long spans

Higher stiffness of the composite shafts provides for longer spans


without the need of any intermediate bearings.
Light weight

Carbon fiber composites drive shafts weight less than 1/3 rd of an


equivalent metallic drive shaft.
Inherent corrosion resistance

The shafts are made from composites while the hubs and hardware
are made from SS-316, giving the drive shafts very high corrosion
resistance.
SHAFT FAILURE MODES
A shaft may fail by:
Excessive lateral deflection, which causes items such as
gears to move laterally from their proper location,
resulting in incorrect meshing.

Torsional deflection, which destroys the precise angular


relationship or "timing" between sections of a mechanism.

Wear. Wear may take place on bearing surfaces


(JOURNALS) or other contact areas, such as cams.

Fracture. Unless the shaft was grossly under-designed,


fracture usually occurs by FATIGUE CRACKING. This
is discussed below.

CONCLUSION
1. The usage of composite material has resulted to inconsiderable amount of
weight saving in the range of 28 % when compared to conventional steel
shaft
2. Taking into considerations the weight saving, deformation, shear stress
induced and resonant frequencies it is evident that Kevalar/Epoxy
composite has the most encouraging properties to act as replacement for
steel out of the considered two materials
3. The presented work was aimed to reduce the fuel consumption of the
automobile in the particular or any machine, which employs drive shafts ,in
general it is achieved by using light weight composites like Kevelar/Epoxy
4. The presented work also deals with design optimization i.e converting two
piece drive shaft (conventional steel shaft) in to single piece light weighted
composite drive shaft
5. The drive shaft of Toyota Qualis was chosen for determining the
dimensions, which were used then used for the material properties of
composites were used the stability of drive shaft is ensured by limiting the
include values with in the permissible range in Ansy 12.0
6. The stress intensity value (KIII) at crack tip is observed for composite
driveshaft is low.
REFERENCES
Mechanics of laminated composite plates and shells:
theory and analysis by Junuthula Narasimha Reddy.

Optimal Sizing and Stacking Sequence of Composite Drive

shafts- Thimmigowda rangaswami,Sabapathy Vijayarangan.


Polymer Matrix composites In Drive line Applications-Drf

Andrew Pollard, GKN


Technology,Wolverhampton , UK.

Static Torsion Capacity of Hybrid Aluminum Glass Fiber

Composite Hallow Shaft-S.A.Mutasher , B.B.Sahari and


A.M.S Hamouda, S.M.Sapuan.
Automotive Composite Drive shaft: Investigation of Design

variables Effects- M.A.Badie, A.Mahdi, A.R.Abutalib,


E.J.Aabdullah and R.Yonus.
Static and dynamic characteristics of composite shafts-

S.A.Mutasher , B.B.Sahari and A.M.S Hamouda,


S.M.Sapuan.