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OBESITY

PRESENTED BY
NAYANA GEORGE
2nd YEAR BSC
INTRODUCTION
Today as way of life is less physically active
than it used to be . People travel on busses and
cars , rather than walking and many people work in
office , where they are sitting still for most of the
day . This means that the calories they eat are not
getting burnt off as energy . Instead the extra
calories are stored as fat.
Overtime eating excess calories tends to
weight gain . Without lifestyle changes, increases
the amount of physical activity done on a daily
basis or reduce the amount of calories consumed
people can become obese.
DEFINITION
Obesity may be defined as an
abnormal growth of the adipose tissue due
to enlargement of fat cell size or an
increase in fat cell number or a
combination of both
Obesity is often expressed in terms
of body mass index (BMI).Overweight is
usually due to obesity but can arise from
other causes such as abnormal muscle
INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE
World wide atleast 2.8 million people die each
year as a result of being overweight or obese , and
an estimated 35.8 million of global DALYS are
caused by obesity
According to WHO database 34.8% of the world
adults were overweight and 11% were obese in
2015.
The prevalence is high in women than in men
and varies gently across the WHO region . Alarming
prevalence of obesity has been observed also in
children and adolescent in several countries .
Obesity is perhaps the most prevalent form of
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL
DETTERMINANTS
The aetiology of obesity is complex , and is one of multiple
causation
AGE: Obesity can occur in any age and gently increase with
age . About one third of obese adults have been so since
from childhood.
SEX: Women generally have higher rate of obesity than
men, although men may have higher rates of overweight
GENETIC FACTOR: A person is more likely to develop
obesity if one or both parents are obese.
PHYSICAL INACTIVITY: Sedentary people burn fewer
caliories than people who are active.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: The relationship of obesity
to social class has been studied in some details . There is a
clear inverse relationship between socio-economic status
and obesity.
OVEREATING: Overeating tends to weight gain ,
especially if the diet is high in fat.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTOR: Psychological factors (eg,
emotional disturbance) are deeply involved in the aetiology
of obesity . Overeating may be a symptom of
depression,anxiety,frustration in childhood as it is in adult.
ENDOCRINE FACTORS: These may be involved in
occasional cases. Eg:-cushings syndrome
ALCOHOL: A recent review of studies concluded that
the relationship between alcohol consumption and
adiposity was generally positive for men and negative
for women
SMOKING: Reports shows that the use of tobacco
leads to weight gain
DRUGS: Use of certain drugs eg:- cortico
steroid,contraceptive,insulin..etc can promote weight
gain
USE OF BMI TO CLSSIFY OBESITY
CLASSIFICATION BMI RISK OF
COMORBIDITIES
Underweight <18.5 low

Normal range 18.50 24.99 Average

Overweight: >25.00
Pre-obese 25.00-29.99 Increased
Obese class 1 30.00-34.00 Moderate
Obese class 2 35.00-39.00 Severe
Obese class 3 >40.00 Very sever
HAZARDS OF OBESITY
CORONARY HEART DISEASE; Increased BMI leads to
the accumulation of the plaque in the arteries which
reduce the blood flow to the heart muscles and
cause angina of heart attack
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE; There is a chance of
having high blood pressure if you are obese
STROKE: Obese can lead to buildup of plaque in
arteries which causing blood to form
TYPE 2 DIABETES; Diabetes is a disease in which
the bodies blood glucose or blood sugar level is too
high
METABOLIC SYNDROME: It is the name for a group of
risk factors that rises your risk for heart disease and
other health problems.
CANCER: Being overweight raises you risk for colon,
breast, endometrial and gallbladder cancers
OSTEOARTHRITIES: A common joint problems of the
knee ,hip and lower back
SLEEP APNEA: It is a common disorder in which you
have one or more pauses in breathing . A person who
have sleep apnea have more fat stored around the
neck this can narrow the airway
PREPRODUCTIVE PROBLEMS: Obesity can cause
menstrual issue and infertility in women.
MANAGEMENT
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT

Management of obesity can include


lifestyle changes , medication or surgery .
The main treatment for obesity consist of
dieting and physical exercise . Diet
programs may produce weight loss over
the short term . physical exercise is the
other important management of obesity.
PHARMOCOLOGICAL
THERAPY
Anti-obesity medication
o Orlistat :- it reduce intestinal fat absorption by
inhibiting pancreatic lipase
o Lorcaserin
o Rimonabant
o Sibutramine
o Bontril
o Temiate
SURGICAL MANAGEMENT

BARIATRIC SURGERY(WEIGHT LOSS SURGERY):


It is a surgical intervention to treat obesity.It is
only recommended for severely obese people
(BMI>40) who have failed to lose weight
following dietary modification and
pharmacological treatment
ILEOJEJUNAL BYPASS: I n which the digestive
tract is rerouted to bypass the small intestine
NURSING MANAGEMENT
DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTIONS
1:Imbalanced nutrition more than body requirement related to
food intake that exceed body needs
INTERVENTIONS
1. Review individual cause for obesity
2. Carryout and review daily food dairy
3. Give liquid diet , softer , high in protein and fiber and low in
fat with the addition of liquid as needed
4. Encourage the client to do a lot of exercise
Ineffective breathing pattern related to decrease
in lung expansion
INTERVENTION
1.Monitor the speed / depth of breath, auscultation
of breath sounds
2.Investigate cyanosis ,increased restlessness
3.Encourage deep breathing exercise
4.Help the patient use breathing apparatus
Activity intolerance related to being overweight
INTERVENTIONS
1.Create a schedule of activities to do and ask the
client to do it with discipline
2.Help client to encourage in activities that hard to do
3.Make sure the client motivation to sustain the
movement
4.Encourage the client perform normal daily
activities ,according to ability
5.Collaboration with physiotherapy
EVALUATION?
ASSIGNMENT
Write the health education for
obesity.
CONCLUSION
Hopefully after this you are more aware
of the affects of obesity. Many people do not
realize how damaging obesity can be to the body
and for your overall health. Obesity is something
that is increasingly on the rise today and will
continue to rise unless we do something about it
like informing people of how bad it really is and
encouraging people to live a health-enhancing
lifestyle. A healthy diet and exercising two to
three times a week is key to not becoming obese.
Let's change the trend of obesity by living
healthy lives
REFERENCE

K PARKS TEXTBOOK OF PREVENTIVE AND SOCIAL


MEDICINE
22ND EDITION
PAGE NO:-367- 371.