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Transformer

Electrical transformeris a staticelectrical


machinewhich transforms electrical energy
fromonecircuittoanotherwithoutanydirect
electrical connection and with the help of
mutualinductionbetweentwowindings.
Ittransformspowerfromonecircuittoanother
without changing its frequency but may be in
differentvoltagelevel.
Working Principle Of Transformer
It depends upon Faraday's law of electromagnetic
induction.
Actually, mutual induction between two or more
winding is responsible for transformation action in an
electrical transformer. Faraday's Laws of
Electromagnetic Induction
AccordingtotheseFaraday'slaws,
"Rate of change of flux linkage with respect to time is
directlyproportionaltotheinducedEMFinaconductor
orcoil".
Basic Theory of Transformer
Say you have one winding which is supplied by an alternating
electricalsource.
The alternating current through the winding produces a continually
changingfluxoralternatingfluxthatsurroundsthewinding.
Ifanyotherwindingisbroughtnearertothepreviousone,obviously
someportionofthisfluxwilllinkwiththesecond.
As this flux is continually changing in its amplitude and direction,
theremustbeachangeinfluxlinkageinthesecondwindingorcoil.
AccordingtoFaraday'slawofelectromagneticinduction,theremust
beanEMFinducedinthesecond.
Ifthecircuitofthelaterwindingisclosed,theremustbeancurrent
flowingthroughit.
The winding which takes
electrical power from the
source, is generally known
asprimarywinding
Thewindingwhichgivesthe
desiredoutputvoltagedueto
mutual induction in the
transformer, is commonly
knownassecondarywinding
oftransformer.
Construction of Transformer
The transformer consists of soft iron core or
the silicon steel core and two windings
attached to it i.e. primary winding and the
secondary winding such that core and the
windings are insulated from one another. To
prevent insulation lamination is done on the
core to provide low reluctance path for the
magneticflux.
Primary Winding of transformer -whichproduces
magneticfluxwhenitisconnectedtoelectricalsource.
Magnetic Core of transformer -themagneticflux
producedbytheprimarywinding,thatwillpassthrough
thislowreluctancepathlinkedwithsecondarywindingand
createaclosedmagneticcircuit.
Secondary Winding of transformer-theflux,produced
byprimarywinding,passesthroughthecore,willlinkwith
thesecondarywinding.Thiswindingalsowoundsonthe
samecoreandgivesthedesiredoutputofthetransformer.
What happens if DC current is provided to primary
winding?

Ifthetransformerprimarywindingisprovided
withthedirectcurrentthenthefluxproduced
maynotbevaryinginmagnitudeandremains
constant,thereforenomagneticfluxproducesno
electromotiveforceinthesecondarywinding.
Hence,Ithasconstantmagnitudethereforeitis
notbeusedintransformertostepuporstep
downtheDCvoltageandsometimesmayalso
burnsthewholecircuit.
Types Of Transformers

Transformerscanbeclassifiedondifferent
basis,liketypesofconstruction,typesof
coolingetc.
Onthebasisofconstruction,transformerscan
beclassifiedintotwotypesas;(i)Coretype
transformerand(ii)Shelltypetransformer,
whicharedescribedbelow.
Core Type Transformer
In core type transformer, windings are cylindrical former wound,
mounted on the core limbs.The cylindrical coils have different
layers and each layer is insulated from each other. Materials like
paper, cloth or mica can be used for insulation. Low voltage
windingsareplacednearertothecore,astheyareeasiertoinsulate.
Shell Type Transformer
The coils are former wound and mounted in layers stacked with
insulationbetweenthem.Ashelltypetransformermayhavesimple
rectangular form (as shown in above fig), or it may have a
distributedform.
Types of Transformers
Onthebasisoftheirpurpose
Stepuptransformer:Voltageincreases(withsubsequentdecreaseincurrent)atsecondary.
Stepdowntransformer:Voltagedecreases(withsubsequentincreaseincurrent)at
secondary.
Onthebasisoftypeofsupply
Singlephasetransformer
Threephasetransformer
Onthebasisoftheiruse
Powertransformer:Usedintransmissionnetwork,highrating
Distributiontransformer:Usedindistributionnetwork,comparativelylowerratingthan
thatofpowertransformers.
Instrumenttransformer:Usedinrelayandprotectionpurposeindifferentinstrumentsin
industries
Currenttransformer(CT)
Potentialtransformer(PT)