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Sedimentary Rocks

Temu ke-7
Topics to Be Studied on
Sedimentary Rocks
Their importance
Processes of formation
Classification
Sedimentary structures
Sedimentary environments
Sedimentary facies
Sedimentary Rocks
Their Importance
Make up 75% of all exposed crustal rocks.
However, only 5% of the earths crust.
Contain most of the evidence of earth
history
In the characteristics of the rocks
themselves.
In the fossils that may be present.
May be of economic importance.
Steps Involved in Formation of
Clastic Sedimentary Rock

Weathering
Erosion
Transport

Deposition

Lithification
--Compaction
--Cementation
Processes in the Formation
of Sedimentary Rocks - 1
Source Area Weathering
Produces nonsoluble
and soluble weathering
products.
Erosion and
Streams, Wind, transportation.
Glaciers Deposition by settling
and chem. precip.
Produces sediment.
Depositional Area
Weathering
Processes in the Formation
of Sedimentary Rocks - 2
Depositional Area Deposition by
settling and chem
precip.
Produces sediment.
Lithification by
compaction and/or
cementation.
Produces
sedimentary rock.
Compaction and Cementation
of Clastic Sediment into Rock
Overburden

Sediment Compaction Cementation


Halls Classification of
Sedimentary Rock
It couldnt be simpler.

Fragmental Chemical
Discrete, Rock dominantly not
transported grains of fragments but
can be seen. an interlocking of
Although very strong minerals
magnification may precipitated from
be needed.
many places.
Subdivided on basis
of grain size. Subdivided on basis
of chemistry
How many sedimentary
rocks can you name?
Fragmental Chemical

1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.
5. 5.
Classification of Clastic Sedimentary Rock
Breccia Conglomerate
Sandstone
Siltstone/Mudstones
Structures in Clastic
Sedimentary Rocks
Layering Features
Identifying char. associated with
for sed. rocks. layering:
Cross-bedding:
Usually horiz.
due to
Causes: pauses in deposition on a
deposition slope.
and/or Ripples: 2 types
changes in seds. Can we tell
direction? Yep.
Grand Canyon
Bedding Planes
Cross-Bedding
Ripple Marks
Structures in Sedimentary
Rocks (cont.)

A few more:
Mud-cracks: produced on
exposure and drying.
Fossils: any evidence of past life
Lets look at some.
Mud Cracks
Mud Cracks
Fossils
Sedimentary Environments-1

How many environments can you name in


which sedimentary rocks are probably
forming today?
Lets start with marine:
1. Continental shelf
2. Continental slope
3. Deep ocean floor
4. Reefs
5. Barrier islands
6. Delta etc.
Sedimentary Environments-2

And, for nonmarine:


1. Glacial
2. Flood plains
3. Lakes (lacustrine)
4. Alluvial fans
5. Sand dunes
Sedimentary Environments
Examples

Lake
Lake
Talus
Sedimentary Environments
Examples

Playa

Braided Stream
Sedimentary Environments
Examples

Delta

Alluvial Fan
Concept of Sedimentary
Facies-1
Each sedimentary environment has a
influence on the type of sediments
forming.
There is something unique produced in the
sediments because of the variation in
sedimentary environments.
It may be a unique sediment type - or an
assemblage of sediments (non unique in
their own rights)
Concept of Sedimentary
Facies-2
If we study sedimentary rock
characteristics and assemblages,
then,
We compare with information from
modern sedimentary environments.
and
We suggest one or more environments
of deposition.
Coastal Sequence
Terms used in the study of
sedimentary rocks
Technical Terms Playa
Alluvial fan Ripples
Braided stream Sedimentary Facies
Cementation Talus
Clastic Non-Technical Terms
Conglomerate Deposition
Cross-bedding Erosion
Lithology Weathering
Student Responsibilities on
Sedimentary Rocks
How sed rx are classified.
Structures in sedimentary rocks:
layering, cross-bedding, ripples,
mudcracks, fossils.
Processes in the formation.
Sedimentary environments.
Sedimentary facies.