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MOHD NAZRE BIN MD NAJIB

F13A186
AGROTECHNOLOGY

FINAL YEAR PROJECT


PROPOSAL
TITLE: FACTOR INFLUENCING SHORTAGE OF
RICE PRODUCTION FOR DOMESTIC USE IN
MALAYSIA

SUPERVISOR : MISS NURUL AZWA BINTI


MOHAMED KHADRI
OVERVIEW OF STUDY
Agriculture sector is vital for Malaysias economy
development through provision of rural employment,
uplifting rural incomes and ensuring national food
security (PEMANDU, 2010).
Malaysia is still basically an agricultural country
though it is fast developing into an industrial country
(Murad et al, 2008).
Malaysia has about 4.06 million hectares of
agricultural land and 80% of this land is cultivated
with industrial corps such as palm oil, rubber, cocoa,
coconut and pepper (Onn, 1990; Murad et al, 2008)
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Rice is main staple of food among Malaysian.
Malaysian per capita consumptions of rice accounted for
500 to 799 of calorie intake per day(Nguyen,2009).
Adult among Malaysian take rice an average of two half rice
plates of rice per day (Norimah Jr,2008).
There are 40% of full-time paddy cultivate from total
296,000 paddy farmers in Malaysia (Elenita and Ema,
2005).
PROBLEM STATEMENT
The level of self-sufficient (SSL%) of rice in Malaysia still
unable to achieve 100% of (SSL%).
In 2013, only 71.7% of (SSL%) recorded, decrease from previous
year 71.6%
Table 1 : Self-sufficient level of rice (%) in Malaysia (2009-2013)
Table 1.2 : Self-sufficient level of rice (%) in Malaysia (2009-2013)
Years Self-sufficient level of rice (%)

2009 70.4

2010 71.4

2011 72.1

2012 71.8

2013 71.7

Sources : Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry, (2014)


PROBLEM STATEMENT
The decreasing trends of (SSL%) in Malaysia
proves that Malaysia still facing of the problem of
shortage of rice production.

Moreover, there are 5 state of Malaysia even


showing the decline production of rice between
2012 to 2013. They are Perak,Sabah,Pahang and
Negeri Sembilan.

Kelantan indicated unhealthy scenario since rice


production on that state decrease for 3
consecutives years.

Table 2: Comparison production of rice (metric tonnes) among state (2012 2013)

State Rice production of 2013 Rice production of 2012

(metric tonnes) (metric tonnes)

Perak 234,088 239,354

Sabah 74,907 79,859

Pahang 20,457 22,486

Negeri 5476 5501

Sembilan

Sources : Deparment of Agriculture, (2014)


Negative impacts from this situation leads Malaysia to import rice
to fulfill domestic use among Malaysian.
Vietnam becomes main export of rice to Malaysia with 54.1% from
total of 1,583.8 thousand metric tonnes of imported rice in 2013.

Figure 1: Import of rice by country in Malaysia

Sources: Department of Agriculture,( 2014)


RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

1. To identify the factor that lead into shortage of rice


production for domestic use in Malaysia.
2. To identify the most influencing factor that lead into
shortage of rice production for domestic use in
Malaysia.
3. To determine the impact of shortage of rice
production for domestic use in Malaysia.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What are the factors that lead into shortage of
rice production for domestic use in Malaysia?
What are the most influencing factor that lead
into shortage of rice production for domestic use
in Malaysia.
What are the impact of shortage of rice
production for domestic use in Malaysia?
SCOPE OF STUDY
I. The priority of this study is in rice field in Kelantan
II. Full time of paddy farmers in Kelantan with age 18
years above becomes focuses for this research.
III. Lowering in rice production for 3 consecutives years
become of main reasons for the place of research.
IV. There are higher number of family in Kelantan which
fully depend on rice cultivation as source of income, it
is relevant to carry out in paddy field in Kelantan.
SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
POLICIES MAKERS
i. Provides beneficial information to (DOA),(KADA)-
problem face by paddy farmers in Kelantan-leads to
shortage of rice production in Kelantan.
BODY OF RESEARCHERS
i. Make comparison with previous research whether
factor that brings to shortage of rice production still
occurs in latest study and vice versa.
FUTURE RESEARCH
i. Source of reference for another research since this
research provides latest data and information about
rice production in Malaysia.
THEORY OF DEMANDS(TOD)
3 basic economics concept that are scarcity, choice and
opportunity cost.
According to the (TOD), demand is consumers ability to
buy and services depend of level,place and time range.
Factor that influencing demands is size and structure of a
population
The bigger the population, the higher the demand for the
product( (ISMAIL, 2008).
In Malaysia, the growth of the countrys population is
expected to reach 29.8 million in 2015, compared to 28.92
million in 2012 (Malaysia, 2010).
Since there is increasing of population in Malaysia,
there will be also the increasing of demands.
However, under basic economic concept, scarcity
issues will exist due to unlimited wants of people but
we cannot fulfil their want due to the due to the
limited sources provided by the producer.
Under this study, the limited resources provided by the
producer are the production of rice for domestic use in
Malaysia
ELEMENTS AUTHORS FINDINGS

WEEDS (Azmi et al, 2005) 35 of weedy rice panicles/m2 effected the


PROBLEMS loss of yield of 1 tonne rice grains/ha.

(Baki,2004) Losses of RM137, 876,375 per year since 5%


of field infestation of weedy rice in rice
field.

(Maneechote et al, Raise of weedy rice from 40 to 50%, it will


2005) leads to more than 50% rice yield loss

Azmi and Baki (1995) yield loss of rice production due to grasses
(mostly E. crus-galli), broadleaved weeds
and sedges was 41%, 28% and 10%,
respectively
LACK OF LABOUR Jayawardane, (1996) 90 % of total paddy productivity is
contributed of labour, farm power,
fertilizer, agro-chemicals, out of 45% is
contributed by labour

(Ahmad,2007). No of Younger farmers(25.3%) < eldery


farmers (43.8%)
ELEMENTS AUTHORS FINDINGS

CLIMATE CHANGES (Abdullah, 2007) increase of 1 C in average


temperature of daily- reduction 10
% of the rice yield in Peninsular of
Malaysia.

(Mad Nasir and Ahmad Climate changes influencing


Makmom,2009) agriculture in 3 aspects like
lowering in productivity of
agricultural, decreasing of food
security and impacts on the supply
chain of production

(Al-Amin et al,2010) rice yields decrease between 4.6


and 6.1% due to 1C increase in
temperature at the current CO2
concentration level which could
cause the reduction of rice
productivity by 34.8% per hectare
for the year of 2060.
Theoretical Framework
INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT
VARIABLES VARIABLES

Weeds Problems

Shortage of rice
Lack of labour production

Climate changes
RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1: There is significant positive relationship between
weeds problems and shortage of rice production
H2: There is significant positive relationship between
lack of labour and shortage of rice production
H3: There is significant positive relationship between
climate changes and shortage of rice production
H4: There is the most influencing factor that lead into
shortage of rice production
H5: Shortage of rice production will have huge
implication towards domestic user in Malaysia.
RESEARCH DESIGN
Types of research will be use is quantitative research(qr)
Burns and Bush (2006)-(qr)-involvement of the use of structural
questions in which the respondents options have been predetermined
and a large number of respondents are involved.
survey method is used - questionnaires are distributed to respondents
and when questionnaires are collected back from respondents,
researchers used the data collected for analysis purposes
TARGET POPULATION
Full- time of paddy farmers age above 18 years old
Women and Men
Should be living or works in Kelantan
SAMPLING METHODS
The sample will be taken by using non-probability sampling in which
the units of the sample were being selected on the basis of personal
judgment or convenience (Zikmund, 2003)
Based on four types of non-probability sampling, purposive sampling
will be use to select a sample.
Thus, the purposive sampling is the most suitable due to the
respondents are consists of farmers and living in Kelantan.
According to (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009), purposive sampling consists
of the choose of subjects who are most advantageous placed or in the
good position to give information require.
SAMPLING SIZE
The sampling size recommends is for about 200 people or
respondents.
This research considered Roscoe,(1975) who proposed the
following rules of thumb for determining sample size:
1. Sample sizes larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for
most research.
2. Where sizes are to be broken into sub samples;
(male/females,juniors/seniors, etc.), a minimum sample size of
30 for each category is necessary.
3. In multivariate research (including multiple regression
analyses), the sample size should be several times (preferably 10
times or more) as large as the number of variables in the study.
4. For simple experimental research with tight experimental
controls (matched pair, etc.), successful research is possible
with sample as small as 10 to 20 in size.
SCALE OF MEASUREMENT
Types of scale measurement use are nominal scale, interval
scale.
Questionnaires-adaption from previous study-5 section
I. Section A: Demographic Profile
II. Section B : Shortage of Rice Production
III. Section C: Weeds Problems
IV. Section D : Climate Changes
V. Section E : Lack of Labour
EXPECTED OUTCOMES
There is only one factor will be determine as the most influencing
factor of shortage of rice production for domestic use in Malaysia after
analyze the data.

The impact of shortage of rice production for domestic use in Malaysia


also the objective for this study.

The impact of shortage of rice production for domestic use in Malaysia


can be measure by some aspect like demands growth of imported rice,
cost of import rice,level of self-sufficient rice after analyze the data.

The impact of shortage of rice production will leads to highly demands


for imported rice, increasing cost of import rice, and lower in level of
self-sufficient of rice.
The propose title factor influencing shortage of rice production for domestic use in Malaysia

The objectives and hypothesis are create based on title propose.

Literature review and methodology are identified to carry out the research

Make the questionnaires based on the objectives and research question.

Select of paddy rice in Kelantan to distribute the questionnaires


FLOWCHART

The respondents will be identify for the answer the questionnaire.

The questionnaires will be distribute towards paddy farmers in Kelantan

The questionnaires will be collect after the questionnaires are fully- answer by paddy farmers in Kelantan

The analyzing of data will be conduct based on collect of questionnaire

The appropriate scale of measurement, research design, sampling method will be used to analyze data.

The analyze data will be record

The conclusion will be make


GANNT CHART&MILESTONES
Year 2016 2017

Project (Activities) F M A M J J A S O N D J

Preparation of

proposal

Selection of title

Literature review

Draft flow chart

process

Research

background

Research variables

Study design

(methodology)

Study scope

Milestones F M A M J J A S O N D J

Completion of

preliminary studies

Submission of

Progress Report 1

Submission of

Progress Report 2

Completion of Pilot

Questionnaire

Completion of

Survey

Completion of Data

Analysis
BUDGET
ITEM QUANTITY PRICE(RM)

A4 PAPER 2 BOXES 60

PEN WRITING 200 UNITS 80

OTHER - 50

TOTAL 190
REFERENCES
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c643-421d-aef1-29ae379f6f85
Department of Agriculture, M. (2014). Perangkaian Padi Malaysia (Paddy Statistics of
Malaysia). Department of Agriculture, 1101.
Nguyen NV. (2005). Global climate changes and rice foods security. FAO, Rome. pp.24-30
Elenita CD, Ema DS. (2005).Public sector intervention in the rice industry in Malaysia. In
state intervention in the rice sector in selected countries: Implications for the Philippines.
SEARICE and Rice Watch Action Network, Quezon:City.
Al-Amin, A.Q, W. Leal, J.M. De la Trinxeria, A.H. Jaafar and A.Z. Ghani.(2011). Assessing
the impact of climate change in the Malaysia agriculture sector and its influences in
investment decision. Middle East J. Sci.Res. 7(2): 225-234.
MOA,(2011). National Agro-Food Policy 2011-2020. Division of International and Strategic
Planning.Putrajaya, Malaysia,ISBN:978-983-9863-41-3
Fatimah,M.A., F.A.Emmy, M. Kusairi and T. Muhammad. (2011). Food security: Self-
sufficient of rice in Malaysia. Int.J.Manage.Stud 18(2):83-100.
Gealy, D.R., Mitten, D.H. and Rutger, J.N. 2003. Gene flow between red rice (Oryza sativa)
and herbicide-resistant rice (O. sativa): implications for weed management. Weed
Technology.17: 627-645.
Karim SMR, Azmi BM, Ismail BS.(2004) .Weed problems and their management in rice
fields of Malaysia: An overview. Weed Biol Manag 4: 177186
Ahmed, Q.N., R. Roy, M. Kamaruzaman and Othman, A.S. (2012). Vegetative and
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inhibiting herbicides in sprangletop(Leptochloa chinensis). Weed Sci 53:290295
Karim SMR, Zainal A, Mashhor M,Azmi M. (2010). Weedy rice: Cancerous threat to
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Thank U