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Zymology

FERMENTATION
FERMENTATION

a metabolic process in which an organism


converts a carbohydrate, such as starch or a
sugar, into an alcohol or an acid.

occurs in yeast, bacteria and oxygen-


starved muscles.
FERMENTATION
FERMENTATION
DISEASE
Auto-brewery syndrome/ Gut Fermentation Disease

Fermentation can even occur within the


stomachs of animals and humans. Auto-
brewery syndrome is a rare medical condition
where the stomach contains brewers yeast that
break down starches into ethanol; which enters
the blood stream.
Auto-brewery syndrome/ Gut Fermentation Disease

Dangers of Auto-Brewery Syndrome


DEATH
HISTORY

came from the Latin word fervere which


means to boil.
HISTORY

The name came from the observation that mixtures of


crushed grapes stored in large vessels produced
bubbles, as though they were boiling.
HISTORY

In the 1850s and 1860s, Louis


Pasteur became the first zymurgist or
scientist to study fermentation when he
demonstrated fermentation caused by
living cells.
LOUIS PASTEUR

define Fermentation as
respirationwithoutair
He was the first to
demonstrate
experimentally
thatfermented beverages
result from the action of
living yeast transforming
glucose into ethanol, and
that the process occurs in
the absence of oxygen.
EDWARD BUCHNER

He ground up yeast,
extracted a juice from them,
then found to his amazement
that this "dead" liquid would
ferment a sugar solution,
forming carbon dioxide and
alcohol much like living
yeasts
won the Nobel Prize in
Chemistry for his work year
1907
PRODUCTS OF FERMENTATION
PRODUCTS OF FERMENTATION

Carbon dioxide
Hydrogen
Organic acids
Ethanol
ORGANIC ACIDS
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

white, water-soluble solid or clear liquid

In Animals,

Enzyme lactate dehydrogenase

Pyruvate L-lactate
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

In Industry, lactic acid fermentation is


performed by lactic acid bacteria,
which convert simple carbohydrates to
lactic acid.
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

APPLICATIONS OF LACTIC ACID:


Kimchi
Yogurt
Sour beer
PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID
RAW MATERIAL IN THE PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID

corn
Sugar cane molasses
CITRIC ACID FERMENTATION

Citric Acid is an odourless


crystalline white solid and tastes
very bitter. Also labelled as Sour
Salt.
CITRIC ACID FERMENTATION

Strains of the mold


Aspergillus niger could be
efficient citric acid producers.
PRODUCTION OF CITRIC ACID

Surface Fermentation this process is carried out in


fermentation chambers where a great number of trays is
arranged in shelves.
Submerged Fermentation enzymes and other reactive
compounds are submerged in a liquid such as alcohol, oil or
nutrient broth.
Solid state Fermentation (koji process) simplest method
for citric acid production. The fermentation process occurring
in the absence or near absence of free water.
PRODUCTION OF CITRIC ACID
RAW MATERIAL IN THEPRODUCTION OF CITRIC
ACID

Cassava
Rice bran
Sugarcane bagasse
molasses
ALCOHOL AND KETONE
ETHANOL FERMENTATION

decomposition of sugar to produce alcohol


and carbon dioxide.
ETHANOL FERMENTATION
REACTION MECHANISM

1. Hydrolysis of starch to maltose


diastase
(C6H10O5 )n + H 2O n/11(C12H22O11)
starch maltose
2. Hydrolysis of maltose to glucose
maltase
C12H22O11 + H 2O 2 C6H12O6
maltose glucose

3. Conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide


zymase

C6H12O6 C2H5OH + CO2


glucose ethanol
PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

RAW MATERIALS
1.Yeast
2.Sugar (Molasses)
3.Water
PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL
PRODUCTION OF ACETONE BUTANOL

Acetone organic substance which is miscible with water. It is an active


ingredient in nail polish remover and paint thinner

Butanol primarily used as a solvent, as an intermediate in chemical


synthesis, and as a fuel.
PRODUCTION OF ACETONE BUTANOL

ABE Fermentation
is one of the oldest known industrial fermentation
with a history of more than 100 years.
acetone and butanol are produced from glucose or
starch using strains of Clostridia, which are strictly
anaerobic bacteria.
It yields 3 parts of acetone, 6 of butanol and 1 of
ethanol.
FLOWCHART OF ACETONE BUTANOL
PRODUCTION
FACTORS IN ETHANOL
FERMENTATION
FACTORS ON FERMENTATION

1. YEAST
- species used are those that will produce ethanol
under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

SaccharomycesCerevisiaealso known as the


bakers yeast, is the most commonly used yeast
specie in the fermentation of molasses.
FACTORS ON FERMENTATION

2. TEMPERATURE
- temperature during fermentation should only be between
60-80F.
3. NUTRIENTS
- the yeast needs phosphorus, nitrogen, carbohydrates
Nutrients for the yeast
Diammonium phosphate
Ammonium sulfate
FACTORS ON FERMENTATION
4. FERMENTATION TIME
- fermentation time should only be 24 hours or less. Prolonging the
fermentation time will cause the production of undesirable products
(congeners) such as aldehydes, ketones, esters, causing the alcohol
to decrease in quality.

5. RAW MATERIAL
6. CONCENTRATION OF WORT
wort mixture of molasses and water
- should only be 10-18% (Brix = 10-13)
FACTORS ON FERMENTATION

7. pH
pH of the mixture should only be 4-4.5. This is the
pH in which the growth of the yeast is at
maximum.
the pH of the mixture should be low only enough
to support the growth of the yeast but high
enough to inhibit the growth of other bacteria.
FLOWCHART OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION
FLOWCHART OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION
CULTURE VESSELS
- where the yeast propagation takes place.
PRE-FERMENTOR
- fermentation process starts but the focus is still on yeast
propagation.
- where the nutrients is added
- fed with air to enhance the growth of yeast.
pH = 2-3 (to prevent the growth of other bacteria)
1st FERMENTOR
- more on yeast propagation
- also fed with air to enhance the growth of yeast.
pH = 2-3 (to prevent the growth of other bacteria)
2nd , 3RD , 4TH FERMENTOR
- not fed with air because it is more on alcohol
production.
YEAST SETTLER
- separates the beer from the yeast or yeast cream
BEER fermented mash
YEAST ACTIVATION TANK
- where the yeast are acidified for regeneration.
CLARIFIED WASH TANK
- where the beer to be fed in the distillation is stored.
THANK YOU!