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# Lateral Pile Response

During Earthquakes
By Takaaki Kagawa and Leland M. Kraft, Jr., Members, ASCE

Selda DURMAZ
Soil Structure Interaction
May,2017
2 Content
Introduction
Analytical model
Linear p-y Relationship
Nonlinear p-y Relationship with Pore Pressure in Free Field
Pore Pressure Generation Model
Analysis Procedure
Result
Conclusion

## Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17

3 Introduction
Problem
Saturated sands
Pore water pressure build up
Liquefaction

## Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17

4 Introduction
Natural frequency of soil-pile system decreases
Vibration amplitudes of pile increases
Large pile movements
Superstructure may collapse

## Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17

5 Introduction
Present Methods
Foundation spring method
Beam on Winkler foundation
Elastic solution
Finite element method

Need
A reliable method to predict the pile behaviour that can follow pore

Aim
To describe a non-linear numerical method for soil-pile-structure
interaction in saturated sands
Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17
6 Analytical Model
Superstructure is lumped mass
Pile is discretized into segments
Connections are beams with lateral freedoms
Free-field soil connections
are spring and dashpot
Excitations is provided by
free-field soil displacements

## Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17

Linear p-y Relationship
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Soil reaction (p), at any depth on a unit pile length

p E s 1 y 2 s B Vp Vs
~ dy
dt

## Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17

Nonlinear p-y Relationship with Pore
8 Pressure in Free Field
Nonlinear stress strain behaviour incorporation with hysteretic curves

G max F
1 y

r fB

## Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17

Pore Pressure Generation Model
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The change in the normalized effective stress

r
u m
_
v,0
Backbone curve equation is modified

(1 r ) 0.5 G max F
r
Relation between pore pressure and strain

/ _
2

v

u _
u
_
d _ A n N f _ _
v / _
v v
1 v

v
Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17
Analysis Procedure
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Pore pressure build up Stress-strain alteration Effective stress
variation
P1
1 r 0 .5
G max F( )
1 y
_ ~
2 f B 1 fB
Nonlinear free field analysis _
Nonlinear soil-pile-structure
Nonlinear site response analysis 1
analysis, Iterative calculation for ,
SRANG NONSPS
Nonlinear stress-strain At each step calculations are
relationship, repeated for
Hyperbolic method Soil pile spring coefficient,
Pore pressure around the pile,
Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17
Soil constant,
Results
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Performance of proposed method,
Comparison of previous studies,
Reasonable degree of agreement

Results
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## Performance of proposed method

Shaking table test on a model

## Lateral Pile Response During Earthquake 6/15/17

Conclusion
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Pore pressure build-up is included
Stress-strain alterations are included with backbone curve
Suitable for seismic assessment of off-shore and on-shore pile-
supported structures on saturated sand
Applicable for nonlinear seismic p-y relationship
Validations of proposed method are in a good agreement with
previous studies
More studies are required to clarify the pore pressure response

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Thank you.