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# OBJECTIVES

## 1. Define the term body mechanics.

2. Learn the principles and concepts of proper body
mechanics.
3. Demonstrate proper body mechanics for lifting,
reaching, pushing, pulling, and carrying objects.
4. Use proper body mechanics for lifting, reaching,
pushing, pulling, and carrying objects.
5. Provide basic information to another person to use
proper body mechanics in order to protect their
back.
REVIEW OF PHYSICS
SIR ISAAC NEWTON
He is an English physicist and mathematicians.
He is the founder of the science of mechanics, formulated the three
laws of motion
NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION

## First Law - Inertia

Second Law - Acceleration
Third Law - Interaction
NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION

Inertia is the natural tendency of an object to maintain a state of rest or to remain in uniform motion in straight line (constant velocity).

## An object continues in a state of rest or in a state of motion at a

constant speed along a straight line, unless (if not, except) compelled
(required, obliged) to change that state by a net force.
NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION
NEWTONS SECOND LAW OF MOTION
The acceleration(increase of rate, velocity and increase in speed) of
an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, and
inversely proportional to its mass. The direction of the acceleration is in
the direction of the applied force.
SECOND LAW - ACCELERATION
The acceleration(increase of rate, velocity and increase in speed) of an object is
directly proportional to the net force acting on it, and inversely proportional to
its mass. The direction of the acceleration is in the direction of the applied force.
THIRD LAW - INTERACTION

Law III. For every force (action) there is an equal and opposite force (reaction)

## This law is based on two familiar facts:

There can never be a force acting unless two bodies are involved, one exerting the force and
the other on which it is exerted.
Forces do not exist singly but in pairs.
REVIEW OF ANATOMY
INSERT PICTURE OF A BODY
Vertebral Column
BODY ORIENTATION AND DIRECTION

ANTERIOR POSTERIOR
BODY ORIENTATION AND DIRECTION

MEDIAL LATERAL
TERMS
Base of Support Center of Gravity
Lever Arm Lumbar Lordosis
Terms
Roll Push
Terms
Lif Reach
Joint Motion
Trunk Flexion Trunk Rotation
BODY MECHANICS
Body mechanics can be described as the use
of ones body to produce motion that is safe,
energy conserving, and anatomically and
physiologically efficient and leads to the
maintenance of a persons body balance and
control.
Value of Proper Body Mechanics:

## Conserve energy. The musculoskeletal system

is designed to accomplish two main objectives:
(1) overcome or resist the forces of gravity and
(2) perform work. The anatomic structures of
the body are arranged to achieve both with a
conservation of energy-in other words, the
least amount of energy needed to accomplish
the job;
Reduce stress (pressure, anxiety, trauma,
tension) and strain (injury, hurt, damage) Stress
and strain to many anatomic
structures(muscles,joints, ligaments and soft
tissue) and body systems are reduced when
proper body mechanics are used so work
activities on body structures and the patient can
be managed with greater safety;
Reduce the possibility of personal
injury. The person who teaches and
uses proper body mechanics will
better protect the patient and
himself or herself from injury);
Promote effective, efficient, and
safe movements;
Promote and maintain proper body
control and balance.
Promote effective, efficient
respiratory and cardio-pulmonary
function.
Principles of Proper Body Mechanics:

## Mentally and physically plan for the activity

before attempting it.
Position yourself close to the object to be
moved to use short lever arms
Position your COG close to the objects COG to improve control of
the object.
Use the major muscles of the extremities and trunk to perform movements or
activities and maintain your normal lumbar lordosis.
Roll, push, pull, or slide an object rather than lift it.
You should determine the best method to move the
object before you attempt to move it.
Avoid simultaneous trunk flexion and rotation when lifting or reaching.
Perform all activities within your
physical capacity.
You must be fully aware of your
personal abilities and the limits of
control as they relate to lifting,
reaching, pulling, pushing, and
carrying.
Do not lift an object immediately
after a prolonged period of sitting,
lying, or inactivity; perform some
gentle stretches for the back and
lower extremities first.
When performing a lift with two or more persons,
instruct everyone how and when they are to
assist.
Establish yourself as the leader or coordinator of
the activity. Your instructions and directions
should be brief, concise, and action oriented
( such as lift now, push down, stand up. You