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Roll No: 15012D2008.


Prestressed concrete, invented by Fressinet in 1928 is a method for overcoming
concrete's natural weakness in tension . It can be used to produce beams , floors or
bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete.

PRINCIPLE Using high tensile strength steel alloys producing permanent pre-compression in
areas subjected to Tension.
A portion of tensile stress is counteracted thereby reducing the cross-sectional area of the steel
reinforcement .
a) Pretensioning
b) Post-tensioning
PRETENSIONING :- Placing of concrete around reinforcing tendons that have been stressed to the
desired degree.
POST-TENSIONING :- Reinforcing tendons are stretched by jacks whilst keeping them inserted in
voids left pre-hand during curing of concrete.
These spaces are then pumped full of grout to bond steel tightly to the concrete.
Pre-tensioned Concrete
Pre-tensioned concrete is cast around already tensioned

This method produces a good bond between the tendon

and concrete, which both protects the tendon from
corrosion and allows for direct transfer of tension.

The cured concrete adheres and bonds to the bars and

when the tension is released it is transferred to the
concrete as compression by static friction.

However, it requires stout anchoring points between

which the tendon is to be stretched and the tendons are
usually in a straight line.

Thus, most pretensioned concrete elements are

prefabricated in a factory and must be transported to the
construction site, which limits their size.
Pre-tensioned elements may be balcony elements,
lintels , floor slabs, beams or foundation piles.
Post-tensioning- is a method of reinforcing
(strengthening) concrete or other materials with
high-strength steel strands called tendons.
Post-tensioning allows construction that would
otherwise be impossible due to either site
constraints or architectural requirements.
Requires specialized knowledge and expertise to
fabricate, assemble and install.
After adequate curing of concrete, reinforcing
tendons (placed in side the voids of the structure)
are tensioned/stretched by jacks on the sides &
grouts filled with appropriate mix.

Applications a) Structural members beams,

bridge-deck panels, Roof Slabs, Concrete Silos Etc.
Concrete is very strong in compression but
weak in tension.
This deflection will cause the bottom of the
beam to elongate slightly & cause cracking.
Steel reinforcing bars (rebar) are typically
embedded in the concrete as tensile
reinforcement to limit the crack widths.
Rebar is what is called passive reinforcement
however; it does not carry any force until the
concrete has already deflected enough to
Post-tensioning tendons, on the other hand,
are considered active reinforcing.
Because it is prestressed, the steel is effective
as reinforcement even though the concrete
may not be cracked .
Post-tensioned structures can be designed to
have minimal deflection and cracking, even
under full load.
Post Tensioned Structure
Post-tensioning allows longer clear spans, thinner slabs, fewer
beams and more slender, dramatic elements.
Thinner slabs mean less concrete is required. It means a lower
overall building height for the same floor-to-floor height.
Post-tensioning can thus allow a significant reduction in building
weight versus a conventional concrete building with the same
number of floors reducing the foundation load and can be a
major advantage in seismic areas.
A lower building height can also translate to considerable
savings in mechanical systems and faade costs.
Another advantage of post-tensioning is that beams and slabs
can be continuous, i.e. a single beam can run continuously from
one end of the building to the other.
Reduces occurrence of cracks .
Freezing & thawing durability is higher than non prestressed

This innovative form is result

of post tensioning.
Post-tensioning is the system of choice for parking structures since it allows a high degree of flexibility in
the column layout, span lengths and ramp configurations.

In areas where there are expansive clays or soils with low bearing capacity, post-tensioned slabs-on-ground
and mat foundations reduce problems with cracking and differential settlement.

Post-tensioning allows bridges to be built to very demanding geometry requirements, including complex
curves, and significant grade changes.

Post-tensioning also allows extremely long span bridges to be constructed without the use of temporary
intermediate supports. This minimizes the impact on the environment and avoids disruption to water or
road traffic below.
In stadiums, post-tensioning allows long clear spans and very creative architecture.
Post-tensioning can also be used to produce virtually crack-free concrete for water-tanks.
The high tensile strength & precision of placement gives maximum efficiency in size & weight of structural
Applications of various prestressed techniques enable quick assembly of standard units such as bridge
members, building frames, bridge decks providing cost-time savings.
In slab-on-ground construction, tendons are typically
prefabricated at a plant and delivered to the
construction site, ready to install.
The tendons are laid out in the forms in accordance
with installation drawings that .
After the concrete is placed and has reached its
required strength, the tendons are stressed and
The tendons, like rubber bands, want to return to their
original length but are prevented from doing so by the
The fact the tendons are kept in a permanently
stressed (elongated) state causes a compressive
force to act on the concrete.
The compression that results from the post-tensioning Limitations of Prestressing
counteracts the tensile forces created by subsequent The limitations of prestressed concrete are
applied loading (cars, people, the weight of the beam few and really depend only upon the
itself when the shoring is removed). imagination of the designer and the terms of
his brief. The only real limitation where
This significantly increases the load-carrying capacity prestressing is a possible solution may be
of the concrete. the cost of providing moulds for runs of
Since post-tensioned concrete is cast in place at the limited quantity of small numbers of non-
job site, there is almost no limit to the shapes that can standard units.
be formed.
Method of post-tensioningWedges tensioned by

Losses of Prestress Concrete Beam.
The reduction is prestress is called loss of prestress.
The losses are due to:
1. Loss due to Elastic Shortening.
The losses of prestress is about 5 to 10% for pre-tensioned and about 3% for post-tensioned beams.
2. Loss due to anchorage slip.
Occurs at jacking and anchorage ends. In general the loss is 1 to 10mm.
3. Loss due Friction.
The actual force in tendon is reduced by friction (Specified by the manufacturer of jacks). In additional a
further loss occurs due to friction between tendon and surrounding materials.
4. Loss due to creep.
The sustained compressive stress on the concrete causes long-term shortening due to creep.
5. Loss due to relaxation.
6. Loss due to shrinkage.
Experience on Post-tensioning.
General arrangement of a Major Bridge.
Details of PS Beams.
Stressing Details.
A pre-cast post tensioned beam is usually a I Section having a bottom flange to
accommodate cables and a top flange to take care of tension / compression at top fiber.

Usually when the cables are laid, they are having maximum eccentricity at centre and goes
on reducing towards support with almost zero eccentricity at end block.

The cable when stressed, they induce a hogging moment so the beam is hogged upward.
Notes on Pre-stressing for Post -Tensioned Beams:
Each pre-stressing tendon is comprise of 7 nos. 12.7mm dia 7-ply Class-2 uncoated stress-relieved low
relaxation strands conforming to IS: 14268, with a minimum ultimate tensile strength (U.T.S) of 184 KN.
Necessary test certificate for conformity to the above requirements were obtained from the manufacturers.
Sheathing is comprise of flexible 'ribbed conduit' type with minimum 51mm I.D.(54mm O.D. ) for which
friction coefficient = 0.25 and wobble coefficient k = 0.0045/m have been assumed in the design. The
sheathing was made from short lengths of not less than 4 metres.
All strands of a tendon are stressed simultaneously. The slip at anchorage at each end of tendon for the above
system has been taken as 6mm.
Each tendon is stressed from both ends simultaneously.
The sequence specified in the relevant drawings are followed for stressing of tendons.
Tendon extensions specified are for the length between mid-span and face of anchorage and are based on a
Modulus of Elasticity of 1.95X10^8 kN/sq.m and sheathing properties given above.
These extensions are suitably modified to account for the variation in properties as well as the additional
length between face of anchorage and gripping point of the jack.
Jacking forces and extensions specified are generally achieved simultaneously. In case of shortfall, the
stressing is continued to achieve the required jacking force/extension, without exceeding the specified values
by more than 5%. Tendons satisfying the above are locked. Tendons failing to satisfy are pulled out, reinserted
after cleaning blockages, if any, and stressed again.
Casting of Girders.
Stressing of Tendons..
Stressing Record.
T6Z-08 Air Powered Grout Pump
Pumps cement grout only, no sand. 32 Gallon Mixing Tank. Mixes up
to 2 sacks of material at once and allows for grout to be pumped
during mixing or mixed without pumping.

Approximate size 50" long

30.5" high
52" wide

Weight 560 lbs.

Production Rate 8 gallons per minute

at 150 psi
Colloidal Grout Plant
The heavy duty, high volume Colloidal Grout Plant is favoured for precision
post-tension grouting. The unit features a high speed shear mixer that
thoroughly wets each particle and discharges the mixed material into a 13
cubic foot capacity agitating holding tank. A direct coupled progressing cavity
pump delivers slurries at a rate of up to 20 rpm and pressures of up to 261 psi.
The unit easily mixes and pumps slurries of Portland cement, fly ash,
bentonite, and lime flour. All controls are conveniently located on the operator
platform for easy one-man control.

Pump 31.6 progressing

Pump Type
variable up to 20
gpm, 261 psi
Colloidal Mixer 13.0 CF with
Mix Tank
bottom clean out
2 x 3 x 6 diffuser-
Mixing Pump
type centrifugal
13.0 paddle
Holding Tank
Drive Power Air 300 CFM, 100 psi
Physical 96" L x 60" W x 63"
Specifications H
Weight 1800-2800 lbs.
Problem Encountered during the execution of works
One Out of 20 No's of Girders has been deflected laterally. The deflection measured was 140mm and the it
becomes a girder curved in plan. No crakes were observed.
The design calculations indicate that the net upward deflection is 1.758 Cm due to pre-stressing force and
dead load of the girder which will further reduce to almost zero when deck slab and SIDL load will act on
the girder.
The following reasons were analyzed to fix the reason for the lateral sway.
Due to sudden stressing of a particular cable to a load of P, a torsional moment Px ex will be induced.
For example if cable 4, at a lateral eccentricity of ex is pulled at one stretch to the design force which may
cause a horizontal sway. Hence it was necessary to know,
Cable arrangements
Sequence of pre-stressing
Check calibration of Jack to ascertain that over stressing has not been done
Stress verses elongation Table as per actual at both ends. It is imperative that stressing is done at both ends
and elongation achieved tally with design table of elongation with +or- 5 percent variation.
But, the Contractor wanted to utilize the girder as the above mentioned things have been verified and
stressing has been done as per design. As supervision consultants we resisted to use the Girder and asked
the contractor to substantiate with the design calculations.
Finally, the Girder was rejected and instructed the contractor to replace with new one as contractor was
not come up with any such proposal to utilize the same girder.
Reasons for the rejection of the Girder.
1.The allowable deflection of girder is L/250, which in our case should be 1.10Cm
(Clause 23.2 of IS 456-2000). But in no case Lateral deflection of girder is permitted
in the code.
2. Lateral sway is not permitted for bridge girder either in IRC 18 or IRC 21.
3. But a deflection of 140/70 mm is unacceptable within the ambits of the codes since bridge codes do not
permit lateral deflections as the girder becomes a girder curved in plan.
4. Girder curved in plan will induce torsional moment for which girders are not designed.
Erection of Girders
Minor Bridge.
Details of PS Planks, Tendons and Release order..
Details of Deck Slab
Kathipara Flyover Chennai.
Is the largest Cloverleaf flyover in whole Asia.
Kathipara Flyover Chennai.
Type of Construction:
Voided slab superstructure in PSC and RCC adopted. Span of continuous voided slab is 120 Mts
( Span arrangement of 3* 40 Mts ).
The strands were procured from China got rusted as the bundles of strands were not stored
properly and the location of construction is near to
seashore. We sought for an experts opinion from a IIT, Madras.They opined not use the
strands and suggested to replace with new procurement.
But, contractor submitted a proposal to wash the strands with lime to remove the rust before
inserting in to the sheathing ducts. After a trial the contractors proposal was accepted.
Prestressed Concrete - By N.Krishna Raju.
The end