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Impression materials

Alginate most widely used

displaces moisture
lower detail reproduction
dimensionally unstable
Modified Alginates:

Two Component system: A sol containing water

but no calcium ions, second component is reactor.

Two paste system: Silicone polymers incorporated.

One paste contains alginate sol and other contains
calcium reactor.

Dustless alginate: Glycerin is incorporated into

powder to agglomerate the particles. Powder
becomes more dense and releases no dust.

Flavoured alginates
Alginates which undergo color changes as it gels. [using a pH
indicators selected from Cresol Red, -naphtholphthalein,
Tropaeolin, Thymol Blue, and phenolphthalein; 0.1 to 10% by
weight of a water-soluble polyether that is a liquid at 25 C.;
and 0.001 to 5% by weight of an inorganic pigment and/or an
organic pigment having a color distinctly different from a color
tone caused by color formation of the pH indicator during the
gelation upon mixing with water. Color changes are visualizing
the major decision points in impression making end of
mixing time end of setting time ( tray can be removed from
mouth) it indicates two color changes .
Dust free alginates [To prevent dusting of the powder, the
alginate powder is coated with particular polymers, such as
polypropylene glycol [glycerin or glycol ]
Siliconized alginates -silicon polymers are added to
strengthen the material
Low dust alginate - Alginate as gelation
regulator and filler as major component and
sepiolite and tetra flouro ethylene resin.
Generates less dust of 1-40 micron size.
Alginates containing disinfectants
eg. quaternary ammonium salts or chlorohexamine are added
to alginate powder.
An antiseptic containing alginate impression material
contains 0.01 to 7 parts by weight of an antiseptic such as
glutaraldehyde and chlorhexidine gluconate per 100 parts
by weight of a cured product of an alginate impression
material. The antiseptic may be encapsulated in a
microcapsule or clathrated in a cyclodextrin.
Addition silicones most popular
dimensionally stable
user friendly
The incorporation of surfactants into addition
silicones has made them hydrophilic, with
wetting properties similar to those of
polyether, and has made pouring bubble-free
gypsum dies easier.
Monophase impression materials :
Impression materials are available as single
viscosity pastes called monophase materials.
These materials can be used as both light
bodied and heavy bodied materials.
The amount of pressure given during mixing
determines the viscosity. The greater the shear
the thinner the viscosity.
If more pressure is used it can be used as a
lightbodied material if less pressure is used it acts
as a heavy bodied material.
Visible light cured polyether urethane

The composition of the resin matrix is similar to that of light cured

composites. These materials are available as -light bodied - heavy
Composition includes: -polyether urethane dimethacrylate -
diketone photo initiator - Transparent silica filler (40-60%)
Manipulation: Transparent stock trays are available. The light
bodied material is syringed and the heavy body material is placed
above it. Blue light is used for curing. The exposure should be
done from the posterior to anterior region. Each region should get
an exposure of 30sec. After removal the impression can be filled
and re exposed to light.
Advantages: Long working time, but short setting time.
Impressions can be corrected. Dimensional stability, flow, detail
reproduction. Disadvantages Expensive Requires special


Inlay Boxing Corrective

Casting Utility Bite registration

Ready shapes

Wax - up
Base plate
Used to detect areas of
premature occlusal
Supplied in scored strips &
is dark green, yellow or
blue in colour.
Injection molded polymers
These are made of Nylon or Polycarbonate.
The material is supplied as a gel in the form of a putty .
It has to be heated and injected into a mold
Equipment is expensive.
Craze resistance is low .

The SR-Ivocap system uses specialized flasks

and clamping presses to keep the molds under
a constant pressure of 3000 lbs
Pour type acrylics:
The chemical composition of the pour type denture resins
is similar to poly (methyl methacrylate) materials that are
polymerized at room temperature.
The principle difference is in the size of the polymer
powder or beads. The pour type denture base resins
commonly referred to as fluid resins, have much smaller
powder particles, when mixed with monomer the resulting
slurry is very fluid.
The mix is quickly poured in to an agar hydrocolloid or
modified plaster mold and allowed to polymerize under
pressure at 0.14MPa.
Centrifugal casting and injection molding are techniques
used to inject the slurry into the mold.
Rapid heat polymerized acrylics
These hybrid acrylics are polymerized in boiling
water immediately after being packed in to a
denture flask.
The initiator is formulated from both chemical
and heat activated initiators to allow rapid
polymerization without the porosity.
After placing the denture in boiling water the
water is brought back to a full boil for 20min.
After bench cooling to room temperature, the
denture is deflasked, trimmed and polished in the
conventional manner.
Resins are the same as used with conventional material and are
processed in a microwave.
Denture base cures well in Special polycarbonate flask (instead of metal).
The properties and the accuracy of these materials have been shown to be
as good or better than those of the conventional heat cured material.
Processing time is much shorter (4-5 min).

Microwave resin and non metallic microwave flask


Modifications of acrylic resin materials designed to improve specific

properties included.
1 plasticization,
2 copolymerization,
3.cross linking and reinforcement.
Internal plasticization by co-polymerization may improve strength

Cross-linking is a special case of co-polymerization. In general cross-linking

lowers strength and flexibility but increases solvent resistance, softening
point and hardness
Similar to heat cured material but less likely to be broken if
Produced by substituting the PMMA in the powder with a
Copolymer of butadiene with styrene or methyl methacrylate
are incorporated into the beads.
Alternatives to methacrylate materials
Most alternatives to polymethacrylate are vinyl acrylic,
polysterene, acrylic styrene, acrylonetrile copolymers .


High impact methacrylates (IM): These are basically similar to
standard methacrylate but have a higher impact and fatigue

Epoxy resins (E): The general properties of these materials

are strength, hardness, toughness, low curing shrinkage and
good adhesion to metals. The disadvantages for dental use
are the toxicity, the yellow colour which darkens further, high
water absorption, poor adhesion to vinyl polymers
High impact polystyrene (IS): This is an elastomer
graft copolymer with styrene. It is basically similar to
polysterene and injection molded in a similar way.

High density polythene (DE): This is stiffer stronger

variety of polyether.

Polypropylene (PP): this is a hydrocarbon polymer

similar to polyethylene but stiffer and stronger.

Polyacetal (A): Also called polyformaldehyde. It has

lower water absorption with good resilience and
toughness, and resistance to fatigue
Polycarbonate (PE): It is thermoplastic material with low water absorption and
very high impact strength and toughness.

Chlorinated polyether: It has very low water absorption and low mold shrinkage
with excellent resistance to staining and chemical agents

Eclipse prosthetic resin system is a new method of fabricating dentures from

Dentsply International. It is being marketed as an indirect build-up method for
fabricating dentures that is monomer-free and flask-free. Eclipse is a light-cured
system that does not contain any ethyl-, methyl-, butyl-, or propyl-methacrylate

System uses three resins to form the denture: Baseplate Resin, Set-up Resin and
Contour Resin. The resins were developed to handle like wax, yet be cured into a
denture base material without investing and flasking.

Glass, carbon/graphite, aramid and ultrahigh

molecular weight polyethylene have been used as
fiber reinforcing agents.

Fibers are stronger than matrix polymer thus their

inclusion strengthens the composite structure.

The reinforcing agent can be in the form of

unidirectional, straight fiber or multidirectional
Valplast is a flexible denture base resin that is ideal
for partial dentures and unilateral restorations.
The resin is a biocompatible nylon thermoplastic ,it
eliminates the concern about acrylic allergies.
Casting alloys
Alloys for direct metal laser sintering
A high powered laser beam is focused onto a bed of
powdered metal and these areas fuse into a thin solid layer.
The material used is powder-based working material. MLS
crowns have a primary composition of chrome cobalt alloy.
Molybdenum, tungsten, silicon, cerium, iron, manganese
and carbon are the other ingredients used. They are nickel
and beryllium free. The material is a mix of particles of the
size of 314 m. Energy used is a high powered laser beam
(200 W Ytterbium fiber optic laser). This energy is used to
melt the alloy powder.
The machine produces several hundred dental prostheses
out of metal powder. The speed is approximately
3 min/crown.
Classification of material
Gold, stainless steel, cr-co alloy, titanium, tantalum etc,
Titanium & tantalum most commonly used.

Metals with surface coatings

Titanium substructure sprayed with - plasma spraying
hydroxy apatite
Titanium substructure sprayed with calcium phosphate
(CaPo4) ceramic coating
Non reactive

Other materials
Carbon (vitreous)
Porous aluminium silicate
Polymers and composites (under evaluation)

Most popular implant material using today

Composition pure titanium 99.9%
Titanium alloys Titanium 90%, aluminium6%,
vanadium 4%
Traces of nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen.
The titanium is highly reactive metal it oxidizes
(passivates) on contact with air/normal tissue
fluids. This reactivity is favorable for implant
devices. Because it minimizes bio corrosion.

Material of choice because of inert, bio

compatible nature with excellent resistant
High strength compatible with S.S
Very resistance to corrosion
Ability to from stable oxides like Tio2
Titanium more ductility than titanium
alloy endosteal blade from implants.
Fluoride (F) treatment- Titanium is very reactive
to fluoride forming soluble titanium fluoride in F
solution. This treatment enhances
osseointegration and osteoblastic differentitation

Detrimental effect of F on the corrosion

resistance of titanium and titanium alloys has
been extensively reported. Fluorides are very
aggressive on the protective oxide formed on
titanium and titanium alloys .
In recent years, development of
nanostructured ceramic materials like polymer
nanocomposites (PNC) offers an attractive
path to the development of new implant
materials directly from a computer model
with determined shapes and porosities.
Maxillofacial materials
Silicone block copolymers
To improve some of the weakness of silicone elastomers such as low tear strength,
low-percent elongation, and the potential to support bacterial or fungal growth.
Polyphosphazenes fluoroelastomer has been developed for use as a resilient
denture liner and has the potential to be used as a maxillofacial prosthetic
High flexibility with high tear strength contains condensation RTV silicone
elastomer. Newer version SM4 is very flexible and very high tear strength.
Machinable bioactive glass ceramics
Employed in maxillofacial augmentation as a substitute for bone grafts and studies
show no inflammatory reaction and rejection of the implant.
An examination of material properties should lead us to select
those systems engineered to provide the patient with best
clinical out come with respect to esthetics , function ,
longevity and compatibility with surrounding natural tissues.