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Karen Sirker
World Bank Institute
ksirker@worldbank.org
October 4, 2006

WHAT IS ACCOUNTABILITY? (  !!" #  $!  !"!%$$" "  &'!%$ ( "! !)!() '& (‰    !) !'  ( *$  !!"$+ | .

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!!( !| ( Independent Agencies '" ')(!!''  ) . TRADITIONAL MEASURES TO ENFORCE ACCOUNTABILITY ( Rules and Regulations ' (!" )" ( Bring in Market Principles (.

WHAT IS SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY? *.

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 )('! ) ( !'!" "! "  !!"!  ) !"!)'!! - ( $!"+!$")"!/"!#) !. )!''" )!( !$.( $ ) !" )$(!!$!' ( $! . SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY MECHANISMS ( ! ) '! '  !.'"! (!($)!.

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WHY IS SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY IMPORTANT ›      .

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compliant with the rule of law. WHAT HAS GONE WRONG? If Good Governance is classified as being participatory. then what has gone wrong? THE GOVERNANCE CRISIS ( Poor Access to Public Services a    . accountable. transparent. and responsive to the needs of the people. effective.

( Indifference. Collusion with Vested Groups p      ( Rampant Corruption. Extortion by Agents & Middlemen O    .

 ( Loose Systems & Weak Integrity    .

THE SERVICE DELIVERY PROBLEM ( Services do not benefit the poorest ( Resources not delivering results ( Increasing resources is not the only solution Urgent Need to Improve the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Public Expenditure .

POSSIBLE ROOTS OF PROBLEM ( Budget Allocation Problem |('    ( Expenditure Tracking Problem  "! ! (!( "  ( Problem of Monitoring/Accountability O#!( !( (!($ ( Problem of Participation/Awareness ' !  .

HOW TO MAKE A CHANGE? ( From Coping to *  !" by Citizens ( From *".

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PARTICIPATORY PUBLIC EXPENDITURE MANAGEMENT 4 STAGE PROCESS ( Budget Formulation ! _"! "! !     ( Budget Review !%  '! " " "$& !" '  ( Expenditure Tracking !$ '-Ô  '$ .

 - ( Performance Monitoring ('$  )  ""1 (! ' .

PARTICIPATORY PUBLIC EXPENDITURE MANAGEMENT Budget Formulation 4.

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"3- Analysis Monitoring  -! ÷  ÷.

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   ) O!- Budget Expenditure Tracking Facilitates the institutionalization of social accountability mechanisms in the decision-making of public institutions and policy. and leads to more sustainable poverty reduction outcomes. .

PARTICIPATORY PUBLIC EXPENDITURE MANAGEMENT PARTICIPATORY APPROACHES INCLUDE: ( Budget consultations ( Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys ( Tax and Expenditure Analysis by CSOs/Think Tanks ( Public Budget Hearings and Social Audit ( Community Performance Monitoring of Public Agencies .

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" ( Advocacy Campaigns ( Right to Information Movements and Research ( Citizen Juries and Monitoring Communities .

What is Budget Formulation?  !$.

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Brazil    ' !$ "!"! !!  "! '$" -  !!"! !'  ! ''"!!"! ) !  !('  !"!   . ! "' )  !  '"!(' 6 ! (' ( 6 '" '!" - .Participatory Municipal Budgeting in Porte Alegre.

Budget Formulation in Porte Alegre: The Results  .

<98< ´ "'!"! ! " ´ /("! $$=.<!"   !$!"$'/  !$" !  /"  (8.7889799: ´ "'"  !!  (!   '8..

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 !! !   ("  "  ""($  - . What is Budget Review and Analysis? ($)" "!!3"' )  !! !''- "($   !   #  !)"!#)' ' '""!/"( ' - O$>   ! '!('5 "! ! !''' -  '$(($.'!'! " ! )'$ $!!!")  " " " "#"!"!!' '(" !$- The Approach "$'"/  )#$   ! +  '$ $+ !#'#  " ! ! " ! -  (!!$+ / "$ "$   '   # (("! " "%! " "$! '"'!! &-  $+.

India ± The Case  |(' '  !'$ !' " |"3"-  !  !") '$ !" .Participatory Budget Analysis in Gujurat.

 "!.Participatory Budget Analysis in Gujurat.  $&!#"$''  "-  .. India: The Results  ! " $ !   '(  "'! !!  %":.$@ . " -   '''  -  |"3"' !7?   -  " $.

" '$  (! %|"  '   4|('  $.) !$' (  !''''  !#)( ( !$  ('-& .

What is Participatory Public Expenditure Tracking? (( !." !#('!"$  " )'$# 1 !# ! "! " - $!$) " '$!""   ! (' (! %  $(!$ . &!!"!$ ' " /" - The Approach   !(( "' !(' " '! !'  ) !!"  "'$! ' '0"$%" )/') # /"!# "($  !" &- '   '"" ')"!  "!' - .

! ! ! ! ('!"' " - ! !(-    " " '  -   " ' $'- .Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys in Uganda  799:"!/"!# "($! (' '$ ! ( 7A< "! ' ! 79979=-  799=)($  "!' $!(')$ "?.

7-  .< 799=8.7-  " ! ! ! '?...The Results  '$ !'  'A-: ' " :-9 " 799:?.<?. Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys in Uganda .

  "($ )!('"! ' '!'0"   " '$     ! -  '$ ! !" 0"  !  " -  !  (!! ' " ''- .

What is Performance Monitoring?    !. 5! -  !$' ("/!   !' % "   (!( !' !" (!  # " &) ! !. 53"  !." !''" '(" '''!"! (! 3! ) !!! $' ( ( !-'! ' (( ' "!(!!$- The Approach    !("" !$' (" %--!''"$ !! &)''! ()"" "! "($ )!.! ) "!$ ' ('!  '!!"$$!- .

 .Citizen Report Cards (CRC) in Bangalore.(6 (  "! (! % )) !!$)   & !$! "'!#-  O$ (! ) -> ´ !#!(2' ' ) ""$ $ '  . India  .$+0"  ) ')/!" "($) $  ) ')  ".Performance Monitoring.

!! )'(!" '  O !$"!"' )( $ '  (!($"!'   ($'  '"!! '. Performance Monitoring with Citizen Report Cards: The Results  4'$!"!!  ! !.!"  " ! "' ! (!  "!  "  (!0"$  " $!   ! ( '"!( !$!( ' .

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!" ( + !" ( :. !("!"+" '%($ ! & %'$!! (&!'- ?.Assessing Dimensions !  '     " !"'! ''$!" !"$ "!/- 7.  ". (('+/%!$ $! "& =. !!"$+" '!  A. .+%!  !)3! & B.

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 .Success Factors  !!/!""  !! '  '  ( !$!!$  !!$   !$ $$   ".

 "    $!! -  ! !  ! .Risks of Social Accountability  !#(' "! !$) "$'#)' (!(')!!  (')  "!( !!""!'!!   !('$ ! 3!#C '!"  !!$)!") (!0"$) $-  !((' (!!$ !'  " '('  (! )"$   (-  !"6 !" !"$ !"$!   -  !  ! !( !$.    !  !  !.

#$"DDD .