Sie sind auf Seite 1von 39

Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)

MT is a NDT method utilizing magnetic leakage fields and suitable


indicating materials to disclose surface and near-surface discontinuity
indications.

Significance and Use of MT


Can only test magnetic materials (ferromagnetic)
Can detect surface and near-surface discontinuities
Cannot detect subsurface discontinuities

Ferromagnetic Materials
Iron
Nickel
Cobalt
Ferrite
Alnico (Alloy of Aluminum, Nickel, and Cobalt)

Non-magnetic Materials
Aluminum
Brass
Bronze
Austenitic Stainless Steel
Typical discontinuities detectable by MT

Cracks
Seams
Laps
Cold Shuts
Laminations
Lack of fusion
Porosity
N S

Properties of Lines of Force Associated with Permanent Magnet


They form a closed loop between N and S poles.
They do not cross each other.
They seek path of least magnetic resistance.
Their density decreases with increasing distance from the poles.
The direction by convention is considered to be:
From S to N pole- internal of the magnet
From N to S pole- external of the magnet

N S
Bar Magnet
N S N S

N SN SN SN S
Molecular Magnet Smallest Magnet
Flux Leakage
MT Indication

S N

N S
N S

U - Magnet

Ferromagnetic
Material

N N
S S

Permanent Magnets
Lines of
Force

Direction of
Current
Direction of the Magnetic
Field (Lines of Force)

Current

Right Hand Rule Single Loop

Lines
of
Force

Current

Longitudinal Magnetic Field Around a Coil


Magnetic Leakage Flux

Open to the Surface

Near-surface

Sub-surface

magnetic leakage flux


crack
Direction of Magnetic Field
1) Circular Magnetization
2) Longitudinal Magnetization

Circular Magnetization
Produced when electric current is passed through the test piece or by
the use of a central conductor through a central opening in the test
piece, inducing a magnetic field at right angles to the current flow.

Longitudinal Magnetization
Produced when magnetic field is generated by an electric current
passing through a multi-turn or laminated coil which encloses the test
piece or section of the test piece to be examined.
Manual Clamp/
Magnetic Leech
Localized
Prod Technique
Direct Contact
Magnetization
Head and Tailstock
Contact
Overall

Clamps

Part Magnetization Multidirectional


Techniques

Coil and Cable


Magnetization

Central Conductor
Indirect Contact Induced Current Fixture
Magnetization

Yoke Magnetization
Requirements of Magnetic Particle Examination Procedure
ASME V, Article 7
Types of Magnetizing Current
Alternating Current (AC) Sensitive for detection of Surface Discontinuities

Direct Current (DC) & Rectified


Sensitive for detection of Near-Surface Discontinuities
Alternating Current

Rectified Alternating Current


Half-wave Rectified AC Use in conjunction with dry particles and prods or yoke

Full-wave Rectified AC Commonly used in residual testing and testing of coated


or plated surfaces.
Magnetic Particles
Method of Application and Color

Magnetic Particles Application Color


Visible:
- Light Gray
Spraying
Dry Magnetic Particles - Black
Dusting
- Red
-Yellow
Visible:
Flowing - Reddish Brown
Wet Magnetic Particles Pouring - Black
Spraying Fluorescent
-Bright Yellow Green
Yoke Magnetization Technique

Electromagnetic Yoke
Magnetic Lines of Force

Weld

Magnetic Field Between Yoke Poles


Hand-held Electromagnetic Yoke Kit for MT

Black Light
or UV-A Light

Magnetic Particles
Electromagnetic Yoke

Dry Magnetic
Particles Field Indicator
Yoke Technique

this method shall only be applied to detect discontinuities that


are open to the surface of the part.

Alternating Current ( AC ) Yoke


Direct Current ( DC ) Yoke
Permanent Magnet Yoke

Note: For materials 6mm and less thick, AC yoke is more


superior to DC and permanent magnet.
Direction of magnetization

At least two separate magnetization shall be performed


on each leg.
During the second examination , the lines of magnetic
flux shall be approximately perpendicular to those used
during the first examination.
A different technique may be used for the second
examination.
Magnetization Technique

Overlap
Weld With Reinforcement

Overlap

Weld Flushed Ground


Method of Examination

Examination shall be done by the continuous method


Dry Particles
the magnetizing current shall be remain on while the
examination medium is being applied and while any excess
of the examination medium is removed.

Particles
Wet
wet particle applied from aerosol spray cans may be applied
before and /or after magnetization current is applied.
Lifting Power of Yokes
ASME V Article 7

(a) Prior to use, the magnetizing power of electromagnetic yokes shall have
been checked within the past year. The magnetizing power of permanent
magnetic yokes shall be checked daily prior to use. The magnetizing power of
all yokes shall be checked whenever the yoke has been damaged or repaired.
(b) Each alternating current electromagnetic yoke shall have a lifting power of
at least 10 lb (4.5 kg) at the maximum pole spacing that will be used.
(c) Each direct current or permanent magnetic yoke shall have a lifting power of
at least 40 lb (18 kg) at the maximum pole spacing that will be used.
(d) Each weight shall be weighed with a scale from a reputable manufacturer
and stenciled with the applicable nominal weight prior to first use. A weight
need only be verified again if damaged in a manner that could have caused
potential loss of material.
Minimum Yoke Lifting Force

Yoke Pole
Type of Current Leg Spacing
50 to 100 mm. 100 to 150 mm.

AC 45 N (10 lb) -

DC 135 N (30 lb) 225 N (50 lb)


Reference: ASTM E 709

Note: The magnetizing power of permanent magnet shall be


checked daily prior to use.
Magnetic Field Adequacy

Factors that influence the required field strength in magnetizing


the part to be examined:

size and shape of the part


material permeability of the part
technique of magnetization
method of particle application
type and location of discontinuities to be
detected
Verification of Magnetic Field Adequacy Using Pie-shaped
Magnetic Particle Field Indicator

Position the pie gage on the surface to be examined, such


that the copper-plated side is away from the inspected
surface.
A suitable field strength is indicated when a clearly defined
line (or lines) of magnetic particles form(s) across the
copper face.
When a clearly defined line of particle is not formed, the
magnetizing technique shall be changed.
Magnetic Particle Field Indicator

Eight low carbon steel pie sections,


furnace brazed together

1 in. Nonferrous handle of


any convenient length.

Artificial Flaw
(all segment
interfaces)
1/32 in. max.

Braze weld or mechanically


attach nonferrous trunnions

Copper plate
0.010 in 0.001 in. thick
1/8 in.
MT- Continuous Technique

1. Preclean
2. Apply contrast paint (wet-visible particles only)
3. Magnetize the test item
4. Apply magnetic particles while magnetizing the test items (magnet is on)
5. Inspect
6. Demagnetize (only when necessary)
7. Post clean

MT Residual Technique

1. Preclean
2. Apply contrast paint (wet-visible particles only)
3. Magnetize the test item
4. Apply magnetic particles (magnet is off)
5. Inspect
6. Demagnetize (only when necessary)
7. Post clean
MT - Continuous Technique
Processing Steps
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Magnet is ON Solvent Wipe-Off

Wet-visible
particles only

Pre-clean Apply Contrast Paint Apply magnetic particles while


magnetizing the test items
Step 4 Step 5 Step 6

Inspect Demagnetize (only when necessary) Post-clean


MT - Residual Technique
Processing Steps
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

Wet-visible
particles only

Pre-clean Apply Contrast Paint Magnetize the Test Item

Step 4 Step 5 Step 6

Apply Magnetic Particles Inspect Post-clean


Hysteresis Loop

B+Flux Density
a Maximum Flux Density
Retentivity (Saturation)

Coercive Force Magnetizing


Force Line
(- Magnetizing H- c f H+ (+ Magnetizing
Force) Force)

e
d
Saturation
B- Flux Density
High Carbon Steel
Hysteresis Loop
B+ Flux Density

(Saturation)

Coercive Force

H- H+
(- Magnetizing (+ Magnetizing
Force) Force)

Residual Magnetism

Saturation

-B Flux Density
Low Permeability - Hard to magnetize

High Retentivity - Retains a strong residual magnetic field

High Coercive Force - Requires a high reverse magnetizing force to


remove residual magnetism
High Reluctance - High resistance to magnetic force

High Residual Magnetism - Retains a strong residual magnetic field


Soft Iron
Hysteresis Loop

B+ Flux Density
(Saturation)

Coercive Force

H- H+
(- Magnetizing (+ Magnetizing
Force) Force)
Residual Magnetism

Saturation
B- Flux Density

High Permeability - Easy to magnetize

Low Retentivity - Retains a Weak residual magnetic field

Low Coercive Force - Requires a Low reverse magnetizing force to


remove residual magnetism
Low Reluctance - Low resistance to magnetic force

Low Residual Magnetism - Retains a Weak residual magnetic field


Typical Magnetic Particle Indications
Surface Discontinuities Indications
Near Surface Discontinuities Indication

Surface Discontinuities Indication

[] With few exception, produce sharp, distinct pattern

Near Surface Discontinuities Indication

[] Produce less distinct indications than those open to


the surface.

[] The patterns are broad, rather than sharp and the


particles are less tightly held.
Checking of Indications
By Residual Method
By Appearance of Indications
By the Aid of Magnifying Glass

Causes of Nonrelevant Indication


Effect of Over Magnetization
Geometric Effect
Magnetic Writing

Magnetic Writing - Indicates when the surface of a magnetized test piece


comes in contact with another piece of ferromagnetic
material.

Recording of MT Indications
Sketching the Indications
Using Transparent Adhesive-Backed Tape
Spraying Strippable Film
Photographing
Recording the location, length and number of
indications
Yoke Demagnetization Method

Theory of Magnetization
- An Object is magnetized when part or all of its Magnetic
Domains have their North and South Poles oriented as
in the sketch below.
S
N N
N S N S
N
S S N S

Before Magnetization During Magnetization

A.C. Yoke Demagnetization Procedure


Determine the relative intensity of leakage-field using Field Indicator.
Magnetize the test piece
Move the poles around the area of the test piece and slowly
withdraw the A.C. Yoke it is still energized.

Note: Care should be exercised to ensure that the test piece is entirely
removed from the influence of the A.C. Yoke before the demagnetization
force is discontinued, otherwise the demagnetization may have the
reverse effect of magnetizing the part.
Post-Test Cleaning
Use of compressed air to blow off unwanted dry
magnetic particles.
Drying of wet magnetic particles and subsequent
removal by brushing or compressed air.
Removal of wet magnetic particles by flushing
with solvent
Nonrelevant Indication

LOW PERMEABILITY HIGH PERMEABILITY


(HARD) (SOFT)
Non-relevant Indications

Nonmagnetic MT False Indication

Magnetic Magnetic

False Indication due to Difference in Permeability


Evaluation

(a) All indication shall be evaluated in terms of the acceptance


standards of the referencing Code Section.

(b) Discontinuities on or near the surface are indicated by retention of


the examination medium. However, localized surface irregularities
due to machining marks or other surface condition may produce
false indications.

(c) Broad areas of particle accumulation, which might mask indications


from discontinuities, are prohibited, and such be cleaned and
reexamined.
Examination Records
For each examination, the following information shall be recorded:
(a) procedure identification and revision
(b) magnetic particle equipment and type of current;
(c) magnetic particles (visible or fluorescent, wet or dry);
(d) examination personnel identity and if required by
referencing Code Section, qualification level;
(e) map or record of indication
(f) material and thickness;
(g) lighting equipment; and
(h) date of examinations.