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By Meredith Moncrief

Classified into three types of research

Cross sectional
Itis important to have understanding of the
time dimension for two reasons:
Researchers want to know how variables change
over time.
When studying cause and effect, researchers
must establish the proper time order.
Data is collected at one
point in time on several
variables such as gender,
income, and education.
Example: a study might
include data collected from
males and females,
different socioeconomic
classes, multiple age
groups, and from people
with different abilities and
Advantages: Disadvantages:
Major Advantage: data Difficult to establish
can be collected on time order.
many different kinds of Study of developmental
people in a relatively trends can be
short period of time. misleading..
Ratnaningsih, Tri, and Indah Lestari. "Correlation between Food Schemes
and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age." International Journal of
Evaluation and Research in Education 5 (2016): 55-59. Web. 14 June 2016.
Data is collected in a forward direction over
time on one or more variables such as
gender, IQ, discipline problems in middle
school, high school GPA, ad dropout status.
Minimum of two distinct time periods.
Two major variations: trend studies and
panel studies.
Panel Studies: Trend Studies:
Same individuals are Independent samples
studied at successive are taken from a
points over time. population over time,
Differential attrition and the same questions
are asked.
Establish causal
condition because you
study people over time.
Provides accurate description or picture of
the status or characteristics of a situation or
Learn about attitudes, opinions, beliefs,
behaviors, and demographics.
Follow 3 steps:
Randomly select a sample from a defined
Determine the sample characteristics
Infer the characteristics of the population based
on the sample.
Oladele, Adetoun Olubanke. "Depression and Suicidal Ideation among College Students with and without Learning
Disabilities in Nigeria."EJSBS The European Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences 16.2 (2016): 2084-100.
Web. 14 June 2016.

This study investigated depression and suicidal ideation in

students with and without learning disabilities in two
Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The students in this study
were between 18 and 24 years old, numbering 391 in total.
The number of male students was 165, while female
students were 226. Five valid and reliable instruments
were used to carry out the study. The study adopted a
descriptive research design, and purposive sampling
technique was used to select the population. Data was
analyzed using mean, standard deviation and Pearson
product moment correlation. In this study, students with
learning disabilities experienced more depression and were
more prone to suicidal ideation when compared to their
mates without learning disabilities. One of the
recommendations in the study is that mental health
experts need to address mental health issues and
suicidality affecting students in tertiary institutions.