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Understand when it is appropriate to use a two factor MANOVA

Correctly perform MANOVA utilizing SPSS
Understand the relationships between the dependent and
independent variables
Provide a written interpretation of MANOVA results with appropriate
APA tables
Research Question 11.2

Do students who differ in math grades and gender differ on a linear

combination of two dependent variables (math achievement and
visualization test)? Do males and females differ in terms of whether
those with higher and lower math grades differ on these two
variables (is there an interaction between math grades and
gender)? What linear combination of the two dependent variables
distinguishes these groups (pp. 242-246)?
When do you use two factor
When you have 2 independent variables and 2 conceptually
related dependent variables that are examined at the same time.
For this example, there is a moderate correlation (r = .42) between
the dependent variables (math achievement and visualization test)

Independent observations
Multivariate normality
Homogeneity of variance/covariance matrices across groups
Also address the potential for multicollinearity among the
dependent variables
SPSS Steps
SPSS Steps
SPSS Steps
SPSS Steps
Boxs Test

p = .231 is not significant therefore

the assumption of homogeneity of
covariances across groups is not
Multivariate Tests
Levenes Test

Levenes Test is significant for

visualization, therefore the
assumption of homogeneity of
variances has been violated. This
however should not strongly affect
the overall results since group sizes
are nearly equal
Tests of Between Subjects Effects
Parameter Estimates
Writing the Output
To assess whether boys and girls with higher and lower math grades have
different math achievement and visualization test scores and whether there was
an interaction between gender and math grades, a multivariate analysis of
variance was conducted. (The assumptions of independence of observations
and homogeneity of variance/covariance were checked and met. Bivariate
scatterplots were checked for multivariate normality.) The interactions was not
statistically significant, Wilks = .995, F(2, 70) = .17, p = .843, multivariate 2 = .005.
The main effect for gender was statistically significant, Wilks = .800, F(2, 70) =
8.74, p < .001, multivariate 2 = .19. This indicates that the linear composite differs
for different levels of math grades. Follow-up ANOVAs (Table 11.2) indicate that
effects of both math grades and gender were statistically significant for both
math achievement and visualization. Males scored higher on both outcomes
and students with higher math grades were higher on both outcomes (Table
Table 11.1

Means and Standard Deviations for Math Achievement and

Visualization Test as a Function of Math Grades and Gender

Math achievement Visualization

Group n M SD M SD
Low math grades
Males 24 12.88 5.73 5.72 4.53
Females 20 8.33 5.33 3.28 2.74
High math grades
Males 10 19.27 4.17 8.13 4.04
Females 21 13.05 7.17 5.20 3.20
Table 11.2
Univariate Effects of Math Grades and Gender on Math Achievement
and Visualization Test Scores

Source Dependent variable df F p

Math grades Math achievement 1 14.77 .001 .41
Visualization test 1 5.77 .019 .27
Gender Math achievement 1 13.87 .001 .40
Visualization test 1 8.84 .004 .33
Math grades x gender Math achievement 1 .34 .563 .07
Visualization test 1 .07 .792 .03
Error Math achievement 71
Visualization test 71

Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2015). IBM SPSS for
intermediate statistics (5th ed.). New York: Routledge.
Muijs, D. (2011). Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS
(2nd ed.). London: Sage.