Sie sind auf Seite 1von 47


Transducer is :
A transducer is a device that convert one form of energy
to other form.
transducer is a device, which provides a usable output in
response to specific input measured, which may be
physical or mechanical quantity, property or condition.
The transducer may be mechanical, electrical, magnetic,
optical, chemical, acoustic, thermal nuclear, or a
combination of any two or more of these.
Block diagram :
Block diagram :
Transducer contains two parts that are closely related
to each other i.e. the sensing element and
transduction element.
The sensing element is called as the sensor. It is device
producing measurable response to change in physical
The transduction element convert the sensor output to
suitable electrical form.
High Output Signal Quality
High stability and reliability
Speed of response
-Ruggedness. It should be capable of
withstanding overload and some safety
arrangement should be provided for
overload protection.
-Linearity. Its input-output characteristics
should be linear and it should produce these
characteristics in symmetrical way.
-Repeatability. It should reproduce same
output signal when the same input signal is
applied again and again under fixed
environmental conditions e.g. temperature,
pressure, humidity etc.
-High Output Signal Quality. The quality of output
signal should be good i.e. the ratio of the signal to
the noise should be high and the amplitude of
the output signal should be enough.
- High Reliability and Stability. It should give
minimum error in measurement for temperature
variations, vibrations and other various changes in

- Good Dynamic Response. Its output should be

faithful to input when taken as a function of time.
The effect is analyzed as the frequency response.
Selection Factors:
Operating Principle: The transducer are many
times selected on the basis of operating principle
used by them. The operating principle used may
be resistive, inductive, capacitive ,
optoelectronic, piezo electric etc.

Sensitivity: The transducer must be sensitive

enough to produce detectable output.
Selection Factors:
Accuracy: High accuracy is assured.
Cross sensitivity: It has to be taken into
account when measuring mechanical
quantities. There are situation where the
actual quantity is being measured is in one
plane and the transducer is subjected to
variation in another plan.
Selection Factors:
Operating Range: The transducer should
maintain the range requirement and have a
good resolution over the entire range.
Errors: The transducer should maintain the
expected input-output relationship as
described by the transfer function so as to
avoid errors.
Selection Factors:
Transient and frequency response : The
transducer should meet the desired time domain
specification like peak overshoot, rise time, setting
time and small dynamic error.
Loading Effects: The transducer should have a
high input impedance and low output
impedance to avoid loading effects.
Selection Factors:
Environmental Compatibility: It should be assured
that the transducer selected to work under
specified environmental conditions maintains its
input- output relationship and does not break
Insensitivity to unwanted signals: The transducer
should be minimally sensitive to unwanted signals
and highly sensitive to desired signals.
Functions of Transducer:
To sense the presence, magnitude, change
in, and frequency of some measurand.

* To provide an electrical output that, when

appropriately processed and applied to
readout device, gives accurate quantitative
data about the measurand.
Functions of Transducer:
To sense the presence, magnitude, change
in, and frequency of some measurand.

To provide an electrical output that, when

appropriately processed and applied to
readout device, gives accurate
quantitative data about the measurand.
The transducers can be CLASSIFIED as:

I. Active and passive transducers.

II. Analog and digital transducers.
III.Transduction Principle
IV.Primary and secondary transducer
V. Transducers and inverse transducers.
I. Active and passive transducers.
Active Transducer
- not require an external power, and they produce analog voltage or
current when stimulated by some physical form of energy.
Passive Transducer
- requires an external power
- output is a measure of some variation, such resistance and
I. Active and passive transducers.
I. Active and passive transducers.
II. Analog and digital transducers.

Transducers, on the basis of nature of output signal, may

be classified into analog and digital transducers.
ANALOG - converts input signal into output signal, which is a
continuous function of time such as thermistor, strain gauge, LVDT,
thermo-couple etc.
DIGITAL - converts input signal into the output signal of the form
of pulse e.g. it gives discrete output.
III. Transduction Principle
III. Transduction Principle
In electromagnetic transduction, the measurand is converted to voltage
induced in conductor by change in the magnetic flux, in absence of

The electromagnetic transducer are self generating active transducers

The motion between a piece of magnet and an electromagnet is responsible
for the change in flux
IV. Primary and secondary transducer

Transducers: Transducers, on the basis of methods of

applications, may be classified into primary and secondary
PRIMARY transducer - When the input signal is directly sensed by the
transducer and physical phenomenon is converted into the electrical form
SECONDARY transducer- When the input signal is sensed first by some
detector or sensor and then its output being of some form other than
input signals is given as input to a transducer for conversion into
electrical form.
V. Transducers and inverse transducers.


Transducers convert non electrical quantity to electrical quantity.


Inverse transducers convert electrical quantity to a non electrical

Resistive Transducer
The principle of the resistance transducer is that the physical variable under
measurement causes a resistance change in the sensing element.
The resistance of a metal conductor is expressed by a simple equation.
R = L/A
R = resistance of conductor A = cross sectional area
L = length of conductor = resistivity
Example of Resistive transducer
1. Sliding contact devices ie potentiometer
2. Wire resistance strain gauge
3. Themistors
4. thermocouple
Sliding contact devices ie
The resistance between the slider and
one end of the resistance element
depends on the position of the object.
The output voltage depends on the
wiper position as it is proportional to the
change in displacement of the body
Strain gauge
a strain gauge measures the external force(pressure) applied to a fine wire. The fine
wire is usually arranged in the form of a grid. The pressure change causes a resistance
change due to the distortion of the wire. The value of the pressure can be found by
measuring the change in resistance of the wire.
The pressure to resistance relationship equation
R = KL/A
R = resistance of the wire grid L = length of wire grid
K = resistivity constant A = cross sectional are of wire grid
Types of Strain Gauge
1. Wire gauge
a. Unbonded
b. Bonded
c. Foil type
2. Semiconductor gauge
Unbonded Wire strain gauge
This gauge consist of a wire
stretched between two point in an
insulating medium such as air. The wires
may be made of various copper, nickel,
crome nickle or nickle iron alloys.
Bonded wire gauge
A resistance wire strain gauge consist of a grid of fine resistance wire. The grid is
cemented to carrier which may be a thin sheet of paper bakelite or teflon.
The wire is covered on top with a thin sheet of material so as to prevent it from
any mechanical demage.
The carrier is bonded with an adhesive material to the specimen which permit a
good transfer of strain from carrier to grid of wires.
Bonded metal foil strain gauge
1. Base (carrier) Materials: several types of base material are used to support the wires.
Impregnated paper is used for room temp. applications.
2. Adhesive: The adhesive acts as bonding materials. Like other bonding operation,
successful starain gauge bonding depends upon careful surface preparation and
use of the correct bonding agent.
3. Leads: The leads should be of such materials which have low and stable resistivity
and also a low resistance temperature coefficent
Semiconductor gauge
The resistance of the semiconductor
gauge change as strain is applied to it.
The semiconductor gauge depends for
their action upon the piezo-resistive
effect i.e. change in value of resistance
due to change in resistivity.
Capacitive Transducer
In capacitive transduction transducers the measurand is converted to a change in the
The capacitance C between the two plates of capacitive transducers is given by:
C = o x r x A/ d
o is the absolute permittivity A is the area of the plates
r is the relative permittivity D is the distance between the plates
1. Rotary plate capacitor
The capacitance of this unit
proportional to the amount of the fixed
plate that is covered, that shaded by
moving plate. This type of transducer
will give sign proportional to curvilinear
displacement or angular velocity.
2. Rectilinear capacitance transducer:
It consists of a fixed cylinder and a
moving cylinder. These pieces are
configured so the moving piece fits
inside the fixed piece but insulated from
3. Thin diaphragm:
A transducer that varies the spacing
between surfaces. The dielectric is either
air or vacuum.
Often used as Capacitance
Inductive Transducer
The inductive transducers are of the self generating or the passive type. The self
generating inductive transducers use the basic generator principle i.e. the motion
between a conductor and magnetic field induces a voltage in the conductor.
The variable inductance transducers work on the following principles.
1. Variation in self inductance
2. Variation in mutual inductance
The displacement to be measured is arranged to cause variation in any of three
1. Number of turns
2. Geometric configuration
3. Permeability of the magnetic material or magnetic circuits
Piezo electric Transducer
piezoelectric effect
-effect that when mechanical strain is applied to them or conversely when the
voltage is applied to them, they tend to change the dimension along the certain plane
In piezoelectric induction the
measurand is converted into a change
in electrostatic charge q or voltage V
generated by crystals when
mechanically it is stressed as shown in
1. High frequency response
2. High transient response
3. High output
4. The piezoelectric transducers are small in size and have rugged construction.
1. Output is low
2. High impedance
3. Forming into shape
Linear Variable Differential
Transformer (LVDT)
It consists basically of a primary winding
and two secondary windings, wound
over a hollow tube and positioned so
the primary winding is between two
secondary. In figure shows the
construction of the LVDT.
Advantages of LVDT
1. The biggest advantage of the LVDT is that the output obtained from it is proportional
to the displacement of the mechanical member whose displacement is being
2. LVDT cannot be overloaded mechanically since the core is completely separated
from the other parts of the device.
3. Another important advantage of LVDT is that the output obtained from it is fairly
high and it can be measured easily without requiring the need of the intermediate
4. LVDT is insensitive to the temperature and the changes in the temperature.