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Unit-4

Transistor
What is a transistor?
A transistor is a 3 terminal electronic device made of
semiconductor material.
Transistors have many uses, including amplification,
switching, voltage regulation, and the modulation of
signals
What is a Transistor?
Bipolar Junction Transistors
NPN Transistor Most Common
Configuration
Base, Collector, and Emitter
Base is a very thin region with less
dopants
Base collector jusntion reversed
biased
Base emitter junction forward
biased
PNP Transistor essentially the same
except for directionality
BJT Transistors
BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor)
npn
Base is energized to allow current flow
pnp
Base is connected to a lower potential to allow current flow
3 parameters of interest
Current gain ()
Voltage drop from base to emitter when VBE=VFB
Minimum voltage drop across the collector and emitter
when transistor is saturated
npn BJT Transistors

High potential at
collector
Low potential at emitter
Allows current flow
when the base is given a
high potential
pnp BJT Transistors

High potential at emitter


Low potential at collector
Allows current flow when
base is connected to a
low potential
Common Base NPN
Common Emitter NPN
Common Collector NPN

How does IC vary with VCE for various IB?


Note that both dc sources are variable
Set VBB to establish a certain IB
NPN Characteristic Curves
Saturation and Cut-off

Cut-off

Note that the load line intersects the 75 mA curve below the
plateau region. This is saturation and IC = bIB doesnt work
in this region.
BJT Modes
Cut-off Region: VBE < VFB, iB=0
Transistor acts like an off switch
Active Linear Region: VBE=VFB, iB0, iC=iB
Transistor acts like a current amplifier
Saturation Region: VBE=VFB, iB>iC,max/
In this mode the transistor acts like an on switch
Power across BJT
Power Across BJT
PBJT = VCE * iCE
Should be below the rated transistor power
Should be kept in mind when considering heat
dissipation
Reducing power increases efficiency
Power Across BJT
PBJT = VCE * iCE
Should be below the rated transistor power
Should be kept in mind when considering heat
dissipation
Reducing power increases efficiency
FET Transistors
FET (Field Effect Transistors)
MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect
Transistor)
JFET (Junction Field-Effect Transistor)
MESFET
HEMT
MODFET
Most common are the n-type MOSFET or JFET
FET Transistors Circuit Symbols
MOSFET
In practice the body and D D
source leads are almost B
G G B
always connected
Most packages have these S S

leads already connected


JFET
D

S
FET Transistors How it works
The Field Effect
The resulting field at the plate causes electrons to gather
As an electron bridge forms current is allowed to flow

Plate
Semi-
conductor
FET Transistors

JFET MOSFET

gate gate

P
drain source
N N
drain N source P
FET Transistors Characteristics
Current
flow
D

G B

S
FET Transistors Regions
Region Criteria Effect on Current Current
flow
Cut-off VGS < Vth IDS=0 D

Linear VGS > Vth Transistor acts like a


And variable resistor, G B

VDS <VGS-Vth controlled by Vgs


S
Saturation VGS > Vth Essentially constant
And current
VDS >VGS-Vth
Basic MOSFET (n-channel)
The gate electrode is placed
on top of a very thin
insulating layer.
There are a pair of small n-
type regions just under the
drain & source electrodes.
If apply a +ve voltage to
gate, will push away the
holes inside the p-type
substrate and attracts the
moveable electrons in the
n-type regions under the
source & drain electrodes.
Basic MOSFET (n-channel)
Increasing the +ve gate
voltage pushes the p-type
holes further away and
enlarges the thickness of
the created channel.
As a result increases the
amount of current which
can go from source to
drain this is why this
kind of transistor is called
an enhancement mode
device.
Cross-section and circuit symbol of an n-type MOSFET.
Basic MOSFET (p-channel)
These behave in a similar way, but they pass current
when a -ve gate voltage creates an effective p-type
channel layer under the insulator.
By swapping around p-type for n-type we can make pairs
of transistors whose behaviour is similar except that all
the signs of the voltages and currents are reversed.
Pairs of devices like this care called complimentary pairs.
In an n-channel MOSFET, the channel is made
of n-type semiconductor, so the charges free
to move along the channel are negatively
charged (electrons).
In a p-channel device the free charges which
move from end-to-end are positively charged
(holes).
Illustrates the behaviour of a typical complimentary pair of power
MOSFETs made by Hitachi for use in hi-fi amplifiers.

Note that with a n-channel device we apply a +ve gate voltage to allow source-
drain current, with a p-channel device we apply a -ve gate voltage.
Ideal Output Characteristics of MOSFET
Ideal Transfer Characteristics of MOSFET
JFET vs MOSFET Transistors
Current
MOSFET JFET flow

High switching Will operate at D

speed VG<0
Can have very low Better suited for low G B

RDS signal amplification


S
Susceptible to ESD

More commonly
used as a power
transistor