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# Numerical

Evaluation of
Dynamic
Response
Chapter 5

## June 28, 2017 CC Chang / HKUST

Time-Domain Analysis
e n
iv
g
mx (t) cx (t) kx(t) p(t) pi

Loading p
p1 p pi+1
given 2

mx i cx i kx i pi
time

Displacement x
Time stepping k
e
mx i 1 cx i 1 kx i 1 pi 1 xi se
x1
seek xi+1
x2
t1 t 2 ti tj time
Time-Domain Analysis
Interpolation of Excitation Method

## Central Difference Method

Newmarks Method

Wilson- Method

Commercial Software
Interpolation of Excitation
pi
linear pi
mx i cx i kx i pi t i pi+1

pi p i
t i t t i 1
t i
pi
mx t cx t kx t pi
t i

mx i 1 cx i 1 kx i 1 pi 1 ti ti 1
Interpolation of Excitation
pi
mx cx kx pi
t i
constant linear ramp

## Solution of x(t) consists of 3 parts

- Step response due to pi
- Ramp response due to Pi
t i
- Free vibration response
Interpolation of Excitation
Displacement
x i 1 A x i B x i C p i D p i 1
where

A e t ( sin D t cos D t )
2
1
1
B e t ( sin D t )
D
1 2 t 1 2
2
2

C e [( ) sin D t (1 ) cos D t ]
k t D t 1 2 t

2
1 2 t 2 1 2
D 1 e ( sin D t cos D t )
k t D t t
Interpolation of Excitation
Velocity
x i 1 A x i B x i C p i D p i 1
where

A e t ( sin D t )
2
1

B e t (cos D t sin D t )
2
1
1 1 t 1

C e [( ) sin D t cos D t ]
k t 1 2
t 1 2 t

D
1
1 e t ( sin D t cos D t )
kt 1 2
Interpolation of Excitation
Interpolation of Excitation
Note:

Linear system

SDOF system

## Accuracy depends on the linear

interpolation of loading p
Central Difference Method
Finite difference x i 1
xi
x
mx i cx i kx i p i x i 1 x i x i 1 x i 1
x x i 1 x i 1
2t
i 2 t
x 2x i x i 1
x i i 1
t 2
t t t
x i 1 2x i x i 1 x i 1 x i 1
m c kx i pi
2 2t
( t )
m c m c 2m
[ ]x i 1 pi [ ]x i 1 [ k ]x i
( t ) 2 2t ( t ) 2 2t ( t ) 2
k unknown Pi
Central Difference Method
m c m c 2m
[ ]x i 1 pi [ ]x i 1 [ k ]x i
( t ) 2 2t ( t ) 2 2 t ( t ) 2

find need
At t=0, given x 0 and x 0 To find x1 we need x0 and x-1
mx i cx i kx i p i
p cx 0 kx 0 x x i 1 x i 1
x 0 0
m i 2t
x x1 x 1 x 2x i x i 1
0 2 t x i i 1
t 2
x 2x 0 x 1
x 0 1
t 2
( t ) 2
x 1 x 0 tx 0 x 0
2
Central Difference Method
Summary
Given m, c, k, p, x 0 and x 0
p0 cx 0 kx 0 ( t ) 2
x 0 x 1 x 0 tx 0 x 0
m 2
m c m c 2m
k a bk
( t ) 2 2 t ( t ) 2 2 t ( t ) 2
For step i
pi pi a x i 1 b x i
p
x i 1 i
k
x x i 1 x 2 x i x i 1
x i i 1 x i i 1
2 t t 2
Time-Domain Analysis
e n
iv
g
mx (t) cx (t) kx(t) p(t) pi

Loading p
p1 p pi+1
given 2

mx i cx i kx i pi
time

Displacement x
Time stepping k
e
mx i 1 cx i 1 kx i 1 pi 1 xi se
x1
seek xi+1
x2
t1 t 2 ti tj time
Newmarks Method
Given mx i cx i kx i pi
Seek mx i1 cx i1 kx i1 pi1
Too many unknowns ! Need assumptions.
x i 1 x i 1

( x i x i 1 ) ( x i 1 x i )
x i x x i x x i
2 t
x i 1 t
x i 1 x i ( x i x i 1 )
t 2
x i x i ( x i x i 1 ) x i
2

x i 1 x i x i t x i 1 x i x i t

t 2 t 2 t 2
( x i x i 1 ) x i x i 1
xi xi 3 6
4

Newmarks Method
Given mx i cx i kx i pi
Seek mx i1 cx i1 kx i1 pi1

x i 1 x i [(1 ) t ]x i ( t )x i 1

1 2 2
x
i 1 x i tx i [( ) t ]x
i ( t )x i 1
2
, are Newmarks parameters
Newmarks Method
1 1
Average acceleration ,
2 4
x i 1
( x i x i 1 )
x
2 ( x i x i 1 )
x i x
2
x i 1 x i
t x i 1
( x i x i 1 )
2 x i
t
( x i x i 1 )
x i 2

t 2
x i 1 x i x i t ( x i x i 1 ) x i 1 x i x i t
4
t 2
xi ( x i x i 1 )
4
Newmarks Method
1 1
Linear acceleration ,
2 6
x i 1
( x i 1 x i )
x x i
t ( x i 1 x i )
x i x x i
t
t
x

i 1 x
i ( x i x i 1 ) t
2 x i 1 x i ( x i x i 1 )
2
x i
t 2 t 2
x i 1 x i x i t x i x i 1 x i 1 x i x i t
3 6
t 2 t 2
x i x i 1
xi 3 6
Newmarks Method
Incremental form
(1)
mx i cx i kx i pi
mx cx
i 1 i 1 kx i 1 pi 1 (2)
x x [(1 )t ]x ( t )x
i 1 i i i 1 (3)

i 1 i
x x tx i [(
1
) t 2
]x i ( t 2
) x i 1 (4)
2
(2) - (1) gives mx i cx i kx i pi (5)
(3) gives x i x i 1 x i tx i ( t )x i (6)
1 2 2
(4) gives x i x i 1 x i t x
i t x
i ( t )x i (7)
2
Newmarks Method mx i cx i kx i pi (5)
x i tx i ( t ) x i (6)
From (6) and (7) x i tx i
1 2
t x i (t 2 ) x i (7)
2
1 1 1
x i x i xi
x i (8)
2 t 2
t

x i x i x i t (1 ) x i (9)
t 2
(8) & (9) into (5)
kx i pi
1
k k c m
t 2
t
m c m
pi pi ( ) x i [ t ( 1)c]x i

t 2 2
Newmarks Method
- Summary
Given m, c, k, p, x 0 and x 0
1 1 1
Assume and ( 2 , 6 4 ) t

## 1) Initialize 2) For each time step i ( i = 0,1,2,)

p cx 0 kx 0
x 0 0 pi pi 1 pi ax i bx i
m
1
k k c m x i pi / k
t 2
t
m c 1 1 1
a x i x i x i x i
t t 2 t 2
m
b t ( 1)c x i x i x i t (1 ) x i
2 2 t 2
Newmarks Method
- Example
Case study:
Given:
Physical properties of an SDF system:
2
m 0.253 kip sec / in, k 10 kips / in,
T 1 sec ( 6.28 rad / sec), 0.05
Half-cycle sine pulse force (shown right)
p, kips 10 sin(t / 0.6)
10

t, sec
0.6
Newmarks Method
- Example
1 1
Average acceleration using t 0.1 sec ,
2 4
1.0 Initial calculations:
p cx 0 kx 0
m 0.253 k 10 c 0.159 x 0 0
m
u 0 0 u 0 0 p0 0 1
k k c m
t 2
p cx 0 kx 0 t
1.1 x 0 0 0 m c
m a
t
1.2 t 0.1
m
2 4 b t ( 1)c
1.3 k k c m 114 .5 2 2
t 2
( t )
4
1.4 a m 2c 10.45; and b 2m 0.507.
t
Newmarks Method
- Example
Average acceleration using t 0.1 sec
2.0 calculations for each time step
2.1 pi pi ax i bx i pi 10.45x i 0.507x i

pi pi
2.2 x i
k 114 .5
2
2.3 x i x i 2 x i 20x i 2x i
t
4
2.4 x i ( x i tx i ) 2x i 400( x i 0.1x i ) 2x i
2
( t )

2.5 x i 1 x i x i , x i 1 x i x i , x i 1 x i x i
Newmarks Method
- Example
Average acceleration using t 0.1 sec
Results
Newmarks Method
- Example
1 1
Linear acceleration using t 0.1 sec ,
2 6
1.0 Initial calculations:
p cx 0 kx 0
m 0.253 k 10 c 0.159 x 0 0
m
x 0 0 x 0 0 p0 0 1
k k c m
p cx 0 kx 0 t t 2
1.1 x 0 0 0
m m c
a
t 0.1 t
1.2
m
b t ( 1)c
3 6 2 2
1.3 k k c m 166.8
t 2
( t )
6 t
1.4 a m 3c 15.68; and b 3m c 0.768.
t 2
Newmarks Method
- Example
Linear acceleration using t 0.1 sec
2.0 calculations for each time step

## 2.1 pi pi ax i bx i pi 15.68x i 0.7679x i

pi pi
2.2 x i
k 166.8
3 t
2.3 x i x i 3x i x i 30x i 3x i 0.05x i .
t 2
6
2.4 x i ( x i tx i ) 3x i 600( x i 0.1x i ) 3x i
2
( t )
2.5 x i 1 x i x i , x i 1 x i x i , x i 1 x i x i
Newmarks Method
- Example
Linear acceleration using t 0.1 sec
Results
Newmarks Method - Stability
To keep the algorithm stable
t 1 1

T 2 2
1 1
Average acceleration ,
2 4
Unconditional stable
1 1
Linear acceleration ,
2 6
t
Conditional stable 0.55
T
Usually for accuracy t 0.1T or less!
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems
EOM of nonlinear system
f Linear
mx ( t ) cx ( t ) f ( x ) p( t )
( k i )T
mx i ( t ) cx i ( t ) f ( x i ) p i f i 1
f i
fi
mx i 1 ( t ) cx i 1 ( t ) f ( x i 1 ) p i 1 x i
Nonlinear
mx i cx i f i pi
f i f ( x i 1 ) f ( x i ) xi x i 1 x
f i
x i ( k i ) T x i
x i
Tangential stiffness
function of displacement
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems
mx i ( t ) cx i ( t ) (k i ) T x i p i
Newmarks Scheme
x i x i 1, x i 1, x i 1
Correction (minimize the unbalanced force)
Original mx i ( t ) cx i f i pi
Approximate mx i ( t ) cx i ( k i )T x i pi
Unbalanced f i ( k i )T x i R
( j) R ( j)
x i
( k i )T Newton-Raphson Iteration
x i t x i x i (1) x i ( 2)
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems
Given m, c, k, p, x 0 and x 0
1 1 1
Assume and ( 2 , 6 4 ) t

1) Initialize
p cx 0 (fs )0
x 0 0
m
m c
a
t
m
b t ( 1)c
2 2
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems R (i ) pi

## 2) For each time step i ( i = 0,1,2,) x i 1(0) x i

1
pi pi ax i bx i k i k i c m
t 2
t
R ( j) j=1, 2, ...
x ( j)
x i 1( j) x i 1( j1) x ( j)
k T

## f ( j) fs( j) fs( j1) ( k T k T )x ( j) R ( j1) R ( j) f ( j)

1
k T k T c m (Newton-Raphson iteration)
t 2
t
1 1 1
x i x i x i x i
2 t 2
t

x i x i x i t (1 ) x i
t 2
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems
Case study
Given:
Physical properties of an SDOF system:
m 0.253 kip sec 2 / in, 0.05
Force-deformation relation is elastoplastic with x y 0.75 in

## Half-cycle sine pulse force

f, kips b
a
7.5 p, kips 10 sin( t / 0.6)
e 10
x, in.
o
0.75
10 10 t, sec
1 1 0.6
d c
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems
Average acceleration without iteration using t 0.1 sec
1.0 Initial calculations:
m 0.253 k 10 c 0.159
x 0 0 x 0 0 p0 0

p0 cx 0 kx 0
1.1 x 0 0
m
1.2 t 0.1
4
1.3 a m 2c 10.45; and b 2 m 0.507.
t
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems
Average acceleration without iteration using t 0.1 sec
2.0 calculations for each time step
2.1 pi pi ax i bx i pi 10.45x i 0.507x i

## 2.2 ki k for branches oa, bc and de; and ki 0 for ab and cd

2 4
2.3 k i k i c m k i 104.5
t 2
( t )
pi
2.4 x i
k
2
2.5 x i x i 2 x i 20x i 2x i
t
2.6 x i 1 x i x i , x i 1 x i x i

## 2.7 (fs )i 1 (fs )i k i x i .

p cx i 1 (fs )i 1
2.8 x i 1 i 1 .
m
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems
Average acceleration without iteration using t 0.1 sec
Results
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems
Newton-Raphson iteration using t 0.1 sec
1.0 Initial calculations:
m 0.253 k 10 c 0.159
x 0 0 x 0 0 p0 0

p cx 0 kx 0
1.1 x 0 0 0
m
1.2 t 0.1
4
1.3 a m 2c 10.45; and b 2m 0.507.
t
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems
Newton-Raphson iteration using t 0.1 sec
2.0 calculations for each time step
2.1 pi pi ax i bx i pi 10.45x i 0.507x i

## 2.2 ki k for branches oa, bc and de; and k i 0 for ab and cd

2 4
2.3 k i k i c
2
m k i 104.5
t ( t )
( j)
R
2.4 x ( j) x i 1( j) x i 1( j1) x ( j)
k T
f ( j) fs( j) fs( j1) ( k T k T ) x ( j) R ( j1) R ( j) f ( j)
1
k T k T c m
t 2
2 t
2.5 x i x i 2 x i 20x i 2 x i
t
4 4
2.6 x i x i x i 2x i 400x i 40 x i 2x i
2 t
( t )
2.7 x i 1 x i x i ,
Newmarks Method
for nonlinear systems

No iteration
Linear acceleration using t 0.1 sec
Results
Wilson- Method
Modification of the Newmarks linear acceleration method
1 1
Incremental form ,
2 6
mx i cx i kx i pi
x i tx i ( t ) x i x
1 2
x i tx i t x i (t 2 ) x i
2 x i 1
x i
Linear acceleration and force x i
between ti and ti+ x i
mx i cx i kx i pi t
1
x i tx i tx i ti t i 1 ti time
2
1 1 t t
x i tx i t 2 x i t 2 x i
2 6
Wilson- Method
mx i cx i kx i pi
pi
x i
k
where
3 6
k k c m
t 2
t
6 t
pi pi 1 pi m 3c x i 3m c x i
t 2
then
3 t
x i x i 3x i x i
t 2
6 6 1
x i
x i x i 3x i
x
i x i
t 2 t
Wilson- Method
- Summary
Given m, c, k, p, x 0 and x 0 x i pi / k
Assume t and 1 normally 1.4
1) Initialize 2) For each time step i ( i = 0,1,2,)
p cx 0 kx 0 pi pi 1 pi ax i bx i
x 0 0
m pi
x i
3 6 k
k k c m
t t 2 3 t
x i x i 3x i x i
6 t 2
a m 3c 6 6 1
t x i x i x i 3x i x i x i
1 t 2 t
b 3m tc
2 1
x i tx i tx i
2
1 1
x i tx i t 2 x i t 2 x i
2 6
Commercial Software - MATLAB
Demonstration - SDOF structure under earthquake excitation
1940 El Centro EQ
4
2
ground acc. m/s

0 m
-2

-4

k
0 5 10 15 20
time s
c
75-story building
m 4.61 107 kg
c 1.04 106 N - s/m (1%)
x g
k 5.83 107 N/m
Commercial Software - MATLAB
Response of a tall building under earthquake
4
clear all;

2
ground acc. m/s
2

load elcen; 0

-2

0 5 10 15 20

## A=[0 1; -k/m -c/m]; B=[0;-1]; C=[1 0]; D=[0]; 0.4

0.2

disp. m
[x temp]=lsim(A,B,C,D,acc,time); 0

-0.2
subplot(2,1,1);
-0.4
plot(time,acc); 0 5 10
time s
15 20

## ylabel('ground acc. m/s^2');

title('Response of a tall building under earthquake');
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(time,x);
xlabel('time');
ylabel('disp. m');
Commercial Software - MATLAB
The lsim command operates in the STATE-SPACE domain

## Original 2nd order mx cx kx p

State-Space 1st order mx cx kx p

x x
x 0 1 x 0
k c 1 p
x m m x

m

x
output y 1 0 0 p
x
Commercial Software - MATLAB
AX BU
X x
X
Y CX DU x
0 1 0
A k c B 1
m
m m
C and D depend on the output desired.

[x temp]=lsim(A,B,C,D,-acc,time); Demonstration !
Summary mx (t) cx (t) kx(t) p(t)
5 methods are introduced
Interpolation of Excitation Method
Central Difference Method
Newmarks Method
Wilson- Method
Commercial Software
Accuracy
Extension to multiple degrees and/or nonlinear
structures
Newmarks Method
Wilson- Method
Commercial Software