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An electric power system is a

network of electrical components
used to supply, transmit and use
electric power.
Electrical System

D E S I G N & M AT E R I A L S
For all building construction or remodeling projects, the owner
or occupant must first create a concept for the new design, and then
the architect or designer can produce a set of building plans. These
plans convey all the required information to the local inspection
authority and associated building trades so that construction or
remodeling can take place. Because commercial and industrial
buildings contain a number of electrical systems, these plans include
specific electrical designs and additional documentation to verify that
the design conforms to all required building codes.
Definition of Terms
Electrical systems - are groups of electrical
components connected to carry out some
National Electrical Code (NEC), or NFPA 70 - is a
regionally adoptable standard for the safe
installation of electrical wiring and equipment in
the United States.
Circuit node - refers to
any point on a circuit
where two or more
circuit elements meet.
Definition of Terms
One-line diagram or
single-line diagram
(SLD) - is a simplified
notation for
representing a three-
phase power system.
Definition of Terms
Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) - is a
multi-tier, time-sequenced, step-by-step flow
diagram of a systems functional flow.
Electrical system design
is the design of electrical systems. This can be
as simple as a flashlight cell (battery)
connected through two wires to a light bulb or
as involved as the space shuttle.
The Design Process
An electrical design goes through several important
stages of development. First, the designer must
understand the scope of the project. Then, the
designer defines and designs each component
(such as general office areas, specialized
machinery, and power distribution equipment) to
recognized industry standards. These individual
components are compiled to form the final
presentation for the design.
The following would be appropriate for the design of a moderate to
large electrical system:

1. A specification docume
nt is written. Probably
would have been written
by the client. The
specification document
states in plain language
and numerical detail what
the customer expects. If it
is well written, it will be
used as a reference
throughout the electrical
system design.

2. A functional specification (design) document that goes

into more technical details may be created. It uses the
specification document as its basis. - Here calculations may
be used or referenced to support design decisions.

3. Functional diagrams may be made. These use block

diagrams indicating information and electrical power
flow from component to component. They are similar
to the functional flow block diagrams used with
computer programs.

4. Schematic diagrams showing

the electrical interconnections
between the components are
made. They may not show all the
conductors and termination
points. Except for one-line
diagrams, this should show all
the circuit nodes. One-line
diagrams represent the three or
four conductors of three-phase
power circuits with one line.

5. Wiring diagrams are

sometimes made. These
show and name the
termination points and
names of each conductor.
In some systems enough
information can be put
onto the schematics so
that wiring diagrams are
not needed.

6. Physically smaller systems that

are built many times may use a
cable harness. A full-sized to-scale
wiring diagram can be made of a
cable harness. This wiring diagram
can then be laid on a peg board
and used to guide the
construction of more cable
harnesses. Harnesses can be
inserted into to their equipment
as an assembly.

7. A wire list is made in spreadsheet or list format.

It shows the electrical assembly people what wires
are to be connected and to where. The wire list
contains at a minimum each wire name, terminal
name, and wire model number or gage. It may also
contain the wire termination device model
numbers, voltage classes, conductor class (high-
voltage, medium voltage, or control wiring), etc.
RACEWAY - a surface mounted wire molding.
Electrical metallic tubing (EMT)
- also commonly called thin-wall, is a listed
steel raceway of circular cross section, which is
unthreaded, and nominally 10 long. 20 lengths are also
- zinc-coated steel, with set-screw or compression fittings.
Flexible Metal Conduit (FMC) and Liquidtight
Flexible Metal Conduit (LFMC) - are used in the
construction of commercial and industrial pro-
perties around the world. These products protect
electrical wiring that provides current for power in
commercial and industrial buildings.
- Zinc-coated steel
Intermediate metal conduit (IMC) is a steel
tubing heavier than EMT but lighter than RMC.
It was developed in the 1970s as a thin-wall
alternative to rigid steel conduit (RSC) that weighs about one-
third less. IMC ships with either a straight-tapped or integral
coupling. It features a galvanized OD and corrosion-resistant ID
- zinc-coated steel, with threaded fittings.
Liquid tight flexible metal conduit (LFMC) - Zinc-coated steel
with sunlight-resistant and mineral-oil-resistant plastic jacket.
Rigid metal conduit (RMC) - is a thick-walled
threaded tubing, usually made of coated steel,
stainless steel or aluminum.
No. 10 (AWG) American Wire Gauge and Smaller:
Solid or stranded copper
- also known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge, is a
standardized wire gauge system used since 1857
predominantly in North America for the diameters of
round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire.
Insulation: Thermoplastic, rated at 75 deg C minimum.
- used for high-voltage power transmission
are made from glass, porcelain or composite
polymer materials.
D. Wire Connectors and Splices: Units of size,
ampacity rating, material, type, and class suitable for
service indicated.
Material: Cold-formed steel, with corrosion-resistant coating
acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction.
Metal Items for Use Outdoors or in Damp Locations: Hot-dip
galvanized steel.
Slotted-Steel Channel Supports: Flange edges turned toward
web, and 9/16-inch- (14-mm-) diameter slotted holes at a
maximum of 2 inches (50 mm) o.c., in webs.
Slotted-Steel Channel Supports: Comply with Division 5 Section
"Metal Fabrications" for slotted channel framing.
1. Channel Thickness: Selected to suit structural loading.
2. Fittings and Accessories: Products of the same
manufacturer as channel supports.
Nonmetallic Channel and Angle Systems: Structural-
grade, factory-formed, glass-fiber-resin channels and
angles with 9/16-inch- (14-mm-) diameter holes at a
maximum of 8 inches (203 mm) o.c., in at least one
1. Fittings and Accessories: Products of the
same manufacturer as channels and angles.
2. Fittings and Accessory Materials: Same as
channels and angles, except metal items may be
stainless steel.
Raceway and Cable Supports: Manufactured clevis
hangers, riser clamps, straps, threaded C-clamps with
retainers, ceiling trapeze hangers, wall brackets, and
spring-steel clamps or click-type hangers.
Pipe Sleeves: ASTM (American
Society for Testing and Materials)
A 53, Type E, Grade A, Schedule 40,
galvanized steel, plain ends.
Cable Supports for Vertical Conduit:
Factory-fabricated assembly consisting
of threaded body and insulating
wedging plug for no armored electrical
cables in riser conduits. Plugs have number
and size of conductor gripping holes as required to suit
individual risers. Body constructed of malleable-iron
casting with hot- dip galvanized finish.
Expansion Anchors: Carbon-steel wedge
or sleeve type.
Toggle Bolts:
All-steel springhead type.
- also known as a butterfly anchor,
is a fastener for hanging things on hollow walls such as drywall.
Toggle bolts have wings that open inside a hollow wall, bracing
against it to hold the fastener securely.
Powder-Driven Threaded Studs: Heat-treated steel.
- provide a cost effective method of attaching fixtures forlight
duty, static load conditions.
Bosela,Ayanda Voyi, Theodore R.(2002). Electrical
Systems Design, Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0-13-
975475-3, 542 pages.
Principles of Electricity
Power Distribution
Electric power is generated from several sources of
wind, water, nuclear, fossil fuel, solar and geothermal.
All other energy sources are harnessed to produce a
rotary mechanical motion that drives electric
Generators convert movement into electricity.
Transformers are used to increase the electrical power
to very high voltages for transmission by wires over
long distances.
Smaller transformers set on poles or in underground
vaults are used for final distribution to small groups of
houses or individual factories
Electrical Measurements
Units of electricity: volt, ampere and watt
Volt- unit of electrical power or potential. This pressure makes
electricity flow through a wire.
The higher the voltage, the greater the amount of electricity that will flow.
Current- term for flow of electricity
Ampere/ amp- unit used to measure the magnitude of an
electric current.
Watts- measurement for the amount of power required to
light lamps, heat water, turn motors, and all types of work.
Kilowatt-hour- unit used to measure the consumption of
electrical energy
Footcandle/ candela- amount of light a candle casts on an
object 1 foot away
The intensity of light is inversely proportional to an objects distance
from the light source.
Types of Lighting
Ambient/General Lighting
Provides overall illumination
and radiates a comfortable level
of brightness for an entire
Ex: chandelier, ceiling or wall-
mounted fixtures, track lights
To avoid contrast and glare,
general lighting should be
diffused through the use of
fixtures that totally hide the
light source or that spread light
through panels.
Higher general lighting should
be used in service area and
Specific Lighting
Light directed to a specific area or
located to support a specific task
such as reading, grooming, preparing
and cooking food, doing homework,
working on hobbies, playing games
and balancing your checkbook.
It can be provided by recessed and
track lighting, pendant lighting and
undercabinet lighting, as well as by
portable floor and desk lamps.
Task lighting should be free of
distracting glare and shadows and
should be bright enough to prevent
eye strain.
Decorative Lighting
defined as the jewelry of
In many building types,
decorative lighting plays a
significant role in building style,
period, or motif.
Its main purpose is to be eye
catchy and make a style
statement while its primary
purpose is ornament to the
space, and it plays an extremely
important role in interior design
and themed environments.
Ex: chandeliers, sconces, lanterns,
pendants, lamps, ceiling surface
lights, and other traditional
lighting types that are mostly
decorative in nature
All objects absorb and reflect light. Some
white surfaces reflect 94% of the light that
strikes them while some black surfaces reflect
only 2%.
All surfaces in a room act as secondary source
of light when light is reflected.
Glare can be eliminated from this secondary
source by using matte (dull) finish surfaces
and by avoiding exposed light bulbs.
Structural Light Fixtures
They are wired and built into a buildings hard wired system
therefore it must be shown on electrical plans and
Soffit lighting- used to direct a light source downward to
wash over wall surfaces as general & decorative lighting.
Cove lighting- directs light (usually fluorescent) onto ceiling
surfaces and indirectly reflects light into the center of a
Valance lighting- directs upward to the ceiling and down
over the wall or window treatment.
Cornice lighting- directs all light downward. It is similar to
soffit except that it is to totally exposed at the bottom.
Electrical Outlet and Receptacles

Outlet- point in a circuit where the other

devices can be connected

Receptacle- device (at an outlet box) to which

any plug-in extension line, appliance or device
can be connected
Types of Outlets and Receptacles

Convenience receptacles- used for small

appliances and lamps
Lighting outlets- for the connection of lamp-
holders, surface-mounted fixtures, flush or
recessed fixtures and other types of lighting
Special purpose receptacles- connection point of
a circuit for only one electrical device
Special purpose outlets and convenience outlets
are connected to hot circuits.
Any electrical device used to control and to provide connection points f
or low-voltage outlets, lighting systems, and appliances (e.g.,wall
switches and receptacles).

Are defined as single discrete units of electrical distribution systems

which are intended to carry but not utilize electrical energy.
This Section includes the following:

Single and duplex receptacles,

ground-fault circuit interrupters,
integral surge suppression units, and
isolated-ground receptacles.
Single- and double-pole snap
switches and dimmer switches.
Device wall plates.
Pin and sleeve connectors and
Floor service outlets, poke-
through assemblies, service poles,
and multioutlet assemblies.
EMI: Electromagnetic Interference. = the disruption of operation of
an electronic device when it is in the vicinity of an electromagnetic
field (EM field) in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum that is caused by
another electronic device.

GFCI: Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter. = a device that shuts off an

electric power circuit when it detects that current is flowing along an
unintended path, such as through water or a person.

PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride. = a tough, chemically resistant synthetic resin

made by polymerizing vinyl chloride and used for a wide variety of
products including pipes, flooring, and sheeting.
RFI: Radio-frequency Interference. = same as the EMI

TVSS: Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor. = used to describe

electrical devices typically installed in power distribution panels,
process control systems, communications systems, and other
heavy-duty industrial systems, for the purpose of protecting
against electrical surges and spikes, including those caused by

UTP: Unshielded Twisted Pair. = most common kind of copper

telephone wiring. Twisted pair is the ordinary copper wire that
connects home and many business computers to the telephone
company. To reduce crosstalk or electromagnetic induction
between pairs of wires, two insulated copper wires
are twisted around each other.
Single and Duplex Receptacle
= receptacle providing a place in a wiring system
where current can be taken to run electrical devices.

Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters

= is defined as a safety device on electrical outlets to shut off
electricity if the outlet becomes ungrounded, which would
create an unsafe condition and could produce an electrical

Integral Surge Suppression Units

= is an appliance/device designed to protect electrical
devices from voltage spike. A surge protector attempts to limit
the voltage supplied to an electric device by either blocking or
by shorting to ground any unwanted voltages above a safe
Isolated-Ground Receptacles

= can reduce electrical noise, but if installed

incorrectly, it can create a dangerous installation.
This receptacle differs in construction from its self-
grounding counterpart. The grounding terminal for an
IGR is insulated from its metal mounting yoke.
Single- and double-pole snap switches
= mechanical switches that produce a very rapid transfer of
contacts from one position to another. They are useful in
situations that require a fast opening or closing of a circuit,
such as a mouse button or appliance setting.

Dimmer Switches
= devices used to lower the brightness of a light. By changing
the voltage waveform applied to the lamp, it is possible to
lower the intensity of the light output.

Device wall plates

= A plate used to attach a bracket or similar device to a wall.
Pin and sleeve connectors and receptacles

= allow you to insulate power delivery from moisture,

dirt, grime, and chemicals. You can use them to seal
power connections from the environment, prevent
accidental disconnect under load, and ensure high-
strength durability. Pin-and-sleeve plugs and
connectors provide standardized designs rated at 60A,
100A, 125A, and even 200A.
Floor service outlets
=An electrical outlet whose face is level with or recess
ed into a floor. Also known as floor plug.
Poke-through Assemblies
= provide the interface between power,
communication and audio/ visual (A/V) cabling in an
above grade concrete floor and the workstation or
activation location where power communication
and/or A/V device outlets are required.
Service Poles
=one of a series of large, upright poles used to suppor
t telephone wires, electric cables, or the like.
* Service and Utilization
(Absent Reporter)

An electrical drawing, is a type of technical drawing that shows

information about power, lighting, and communication for an engineering or
architectural project. Any electrical working drawing consists of "lines, symbols,
dimensions, and notations to accurately convey an engineering's design to the
workers, who install the electrical system on the job.
A complete set of working drawings
for the average electrical system in
large projects usually consists of:

A plot plan showing the building's

location and outside electrical
Floor plans showing the location of
electrical systems on every floor
Power-riser diagrams showing
panel boards
Control wiring diagrams
Schedules and other information in
combination with construction
Make Analysis of load characteristics
Review The available voltage system types/classes and levels
Review the utilitys rate structure
Make roughly a key singleline diagram and a set of subsidiar
y singleline diagrams. The key singleline diagram should sh
ow the sources of power e.g. generators, utility intakes, the
main switchboard and the interconnections to the subsidiary
or secondary switchboards.
Develop Demand factor relationship between connected load
s and the actual demand imposed on the system.

Plan the connection to upstream network and MV circuit configu

Plan the transformers substation(s) (if any) and the main switch-
gear room.
Apply to Power Company for supply.
Calculate initial budget for the electrical works.

Connected load
It is the Sum of all the loads connected to the electrical system, usually expres
sedin watts.

Demand load
It is the electric load at the receiving terminals averaged over a specified dem
interval of time, usually 15 min., 30 min., or 1 hour based upon the
particular utilitys demand interval. Demand may be expressed in amperes,
kiloamperes, kilowatts, kilovars, or kilovoltamperes.

Demand Interval
It is the period over which the load is averaged, usually 15 min., 30 min., or 1

Maximum demand
It is the greatest of all demands that have occurred during a specified period o
f time such as 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes or one hour. For utility
billing purposes the period of time is generally one month.

Demand factor

In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is

sometimes less than that indicated as its nominal power rating.

The demand factor is the ratio of the maximum demand on a system to the
total connected load of the system.

Demand factor = Maximum demand load / Total load connected


Coincidence factor (Factor of simultaneity ks)

It is a matter of common experience that the simultaneous operation of

all installed loads of a given installation never occurs in practice, i.e. there
is always some degree of diversity and this fact is taken into account for
estimating purposes by the use of a simultaneity factor (ks).

The coincidence factor is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system,

or part under consideration, to the sum of the individual maximum
demands of the subdivisions.

Coincidence factor = Maximum system demand / Sum of individual maxim

um demands

5 storeys apartment building with 25 consumers, each having 6 kVA of
installed load. Calculate the following:

1. The total installed load

2. The apparentpower supply
3. The main service size
4. The third level service size


1. Calculation of The total installed load

The total installed load for the building will be the sum of the installed
loads in the (5) storeys which will be as follows:
Ground floor:
There are (4) consumers, the installed loads in this sto
rey = 4consumers x 6 KVA
installed load per consumer = 24 KVA

First Floor: There are (6) consumers = 6 x 6 = 36 KVA

Second Floor: There are (5) consumers

= 5 x 6 = 30 KVA

Third Floor: There are (4) consumers = 4 x 6 = 24 KVA

Forth Floor: There are (6) consumers = 6 x 6 = 36 KVA

So, the total installed load for the building

= 24 + 36 + 30 + 24 + 36 = 150 kVA

Factor of simultaneity (ks) for Apartments Block

2. Calculation of apparent power

Since the number of downstream consumers = 25, the Factor of

simultaneity ks = 0.46 So, the apparentpower supply required
for the building = 150 KVA x 0.46 = 69 kVA

3. Calculation of The main service size

The current entering the rising main at ground level (main se
rvice size) = (150 x 0.46 x 1000) / (400 x 3) = 100 A

Note: in order to select cable sizes for the distribution circuits of an

installation, the current I (in amps) through a circuit is determined from
the equation:

where kVA is the actual maximum 3-phase apparent-power value shown

on the diagram for the circuit concerned, and U is the phase to- phase
voltage (in volts).
4. Calculation of The third level service size

The current entering the third floor (the third level service size) = sum of
currents delivered to third and fourth floors

The number of consumers in the third and fourth floors = 4+6=10 consumers

for number of downstream consumers = 10, the Factor of simultaneity(ks) =


So, the current entering the third floor = (36+24) x 0.63 x 1000 / (400 x 3) =