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Beryl

FAJAR MUHARRAM R
11141330000003
Definition
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with
the chemical formula Be3Al2(Si O3)6. The hexagonal crystals of beryl
may be very small or range to several meters in size.
Beryl is often unknown to the general public, even the gemstone-buying
public. However, it is one of the most important gem minerals. Beryl is
colorless in pure form; it is the many different impurities that give beryl its
varied coloration. Without these splendid color varieties, beryl would be
a rather ordinary gemstone with only average fire and
brilliance. Emerald is the green variety and Aquamarine is the blue
variety of beryl.
Physical Characteristics
Color is varied and includes emerald green, blue to blue-green, yellow,
greenish-gold, red, colorless and pink.
Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is hexagonal; 6/m 2/m 2/m
Crystal Habits typically include the hexagonal prism with pincoid
terminations. The terminations are often modified by many different
pyramidal faces which can sometimes produce a rounded termination
in the rough shape of a used pencil eraser.
Cleavage is imperfect in one direction (basal).
Fracture is conchoidal.
Hardness is 7.5 - 8.
Physical Characteristics
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.6 - 2.9 (average)
Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: Faces on large crystals are often pitted, striated
lengthwise and rough.
Associated
Minerals include micas, quartz, euclase, calcite, tourmalines and
some feldspars.
Notable Occurrences include Colombia and some African localities for
emerald; Brazil, Russia and Pakistan for aquamarine; California, Brazil,
Africa, and many other localities for other beryls.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, lack of good cleavage, hardness
and color.
Explanation and Configuration of Cyclosilicates

Cyclosilicates are ring silicates which contain rings of linked SiO4


tetrahedra. The Si:O ratio is 1:3. Three configurations can occur: the
Si3O9, the Si4O12 and the Si6O18 rings.

Figure 1. Configuration of Cyclosilicates


Molecular Diagram of Beryl
The Uses of Beryl
Gemstone
The Uses of Beryl
Source of Beryllium
Beryl was once the only important ore of beryllium metal, but today the
mining of bertrandite at Spor Mountain, Utah supplies about 80% of the
world's beryllium. The extraction of beryllium from beryl is very costly,
and as long as bertrandite is available in large amounts, beryl will be a
minor ore of that metal
The uses of beryllium are for manufacture gyroscopes , various
computer equipment , watch springs, mold , electrode welding spots ,
electronic equipment without sparks, electrical connector, neutron
reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Also in the manufacture of
equipment that require waivers , the hardness and dimensional stability
.
References
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Cyclosilicates
http://geology.com/minerals/beryl.shtml
https://opentextbc.ca/geology/chapter/2-4-silicate-minerals/
http://www.ccp14.ac.uk/ccp/web-
mirrors/crystalimpact/diamond/v2feature-connectivity.htm
http://www.galleries.com/Beryl