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General studies about tumors.

Morphological properties of
mesenchimal tissue tumors.
Nomenclature and morphological features of the nervous system
tumors.
Morphological features of tumors of epithelial tissue.
Nomenclature and morphological features of melaninformation
tumors. Teratomas.

As.-prof. V.Voloshyn

In Accordance with prof. Ya.Ya. Bodnar


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Tumours

A tumour is a typical pathological process. It


is characterized by potential boundlessness
of uncontrolled growth, and also atypical cells
and tissues and ability to pass these
properties to future generations of cells on
heredity.

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Properties of tumours

unlimitedness of growth;
boundlessness of growth;
uncontrolled of growth;
cells anaplasia.

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Anaplasia

Anaplasia
is the proof loss capacity of cells
to differentiation, to form specific tissues
structures or product the specific matters

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Types of anaplasia (kataplasia)

morphological;
biochemical;
physical and chemical;
immunological.

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Etiology of tumours

It is set, the tumours can be caused by


physical, chemical and biological agents,
which are named carcinogens.
Over 75% cancers diseases at people are
caused by the factors of external
environment and in the first order by
chemical compounds.

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Chemical theory
According to a chemical structure chemical carcinogens
divide into a few groups: a) polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons; b) arylamines (aromatic amines) and
amides; c) nitrosamines and nitrosamides.

Over 200 matters with three and more benzol rings belong to the
first group. Only one of them, namely 3,4-benzpiren is included
in such which are able to cause a cancer at people. Other cause
tumours only at experimental animals.

Second group of carcinogens is mainly nitrocolorings.


The nitro-compounds (nitrosamines and nitrosamides) are
characterized by alkyl radical which have. They are used as
antioxidants, pesticides, solvents of paints, semi-products at the
synthesis of dyes, medications and polymers.
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Radiation cancerogenesis

Ionizing rays and in less degree are


ultraviolet rays belong to the physical
carcinogens. Ionizing rays operate not
straight, but through synthesized high-
activity free radicals, which violate the
structure of DNA. Ultraviolet rays hinder
to its reparation.

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Viral cancerogenesis

There are irrefutable proofs of viral origin


of many tumours at animals Raus's
sarcoma at chickens, fibroma and
Shopa's papilloma at rabbit, cancer of
mammary gland at mouse (a virus is
passed through milk). There are a little
amount of the tumours at people which
caused by viruses (which we known
doubtless () today): Berkit's
lymphadenoma, nasopharingeal cancer,
cancer of uterus neck.
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Viral cancerogenesis

Essence of viral induction


cancerogenesis is such: cancerogenic
viruses bring in the infected cell the
genome in the complement of which
transforming gene enters - viral
oncogene. The product of his activity
(oncoprotein) begins transformation of
cell and supports it in the transformed
kind.

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Macroscopic forms of tumours

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Forms of tumours growth
FORMS OF TUMOURS
GROWTH

expansive
endofits

appositional exofitus

infiltrative
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Forms of tumours growth

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Forms of tumours growth

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Infiltrative and expansive growth

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Ways of the tumours metastases
Ways of the tumours metastases

MIXT
Haematogenic
Perineural
Lymphogenic
Implantogenic

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Metastases

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Description of benign and malignant
tumours
Benign Malignant
Have insignificant deviations from Atypzm is expressed
maternal tissue
Expansive growth Infiltrative growth
Grow slowly Grow quickly
Achieve largenesses Rarely achieve largenesses
Formed sore rarely Formed sore often
Does not give metastases Give metastases
The relapse is not characteristic The relapse is often
The common state of patient Have a considerable influence on
violates a little all organism 18
Ephithelial tumours
Depending on a hystogenesis distinguish
tumours from an integumentary
epithelium (multi-layered flat and
transitional) and ferrous. According to
motion and differentiation ephithelial
tumours are benign and malignant.
Depending on organ specificity select
specificity organonspecificity and
ephithelial tumours without specific
localization.

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Benign integumentary epithelium
tumours without characteristic
localization
- villomas (papilomas) meet in a skin,
larynx, urinary bladder and others like
that, from ferrous epithelium. Adenomas
meet in all ferrous (glandular) organs.
They call the followings morphological
variants of adenomas: acinous (alveolar),
tubular, trabecular, solid, nipple
cystadenomas, villiferous adenoma,
fibroadenoma. 20
Malignant ephithelial tumours

have name cancer or carcinoma. They


distinguish the followings forms of cancer
without specific localization: flatcells
cancer which develops from multi-layered
flat epithelium and meets in the proper
tissues or in mucuses, where a flatcells
metaplasia took place.

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Flatcells cancer

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Adenocarcinoma

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Medullary cancer and skyr

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Mesenkhimal tumours
are tumours, which grow from derivates of
mesenchyma tissues: connecting, fat, muscular,
vascular, bone, cartilaginous tissues, synovial and
serosal membranes. These tumours do not have
organ specificity, meet rarer than epithelial tumours.

Malignant tumours of mesenkhimal origin


are named sarcomas from the Greek word of
sarcos - meat, meet rarely. On a cut tumours have a
white-grey color, like fish-meat. Such tumours
metastasize by haematogenic way mainly.

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Benign tumours from connecting
tissue: fibroma
(hard, soft) -
meet in a skin, ovaries,
extremities, grow slowly,
expansively; Fibrotic
hystiocytomas or
dermatofibroma

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Benign tumours from fat tissue:

lipoma (fibrolipoma,
angiolipoma,
myelolipoma),
hybernoma- tumour
from brown fat.

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Benign tumours from muscles:
a leiomyoma is a
tumour from smooth
muscles, more
frequent meets in an
uterus; rabdomyoma is
tumour from skeleton
(transversal-striped)
muscles, meets mainly
at children; a grainy-
cellular tumour or
Abrikosov's tumour is
localized in a tongue,
skin, gullet.

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Benign tumours from vessels

haemangioma, to which
take a capillary
angioneoplasm, cave
angioneoplasm, gloms
angioneoplasm (Barre-
Massone tumour)
(meets on the fingers of
foot or manus), benign
haemangioperocytomas;
lymphangiomas.

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Benign tumours of mesenchimal
origin
The tumours of synovial membrane are
presented by synoviomas
Among the tumours of mesothelial tissue more
frequent there is a fibrotic mesothelioma.
The tumours of bones includes spongy and
compact osteomas, benign osteoblastomas,
osteoid-osteomas
There are two variant of cartilaginous tissue
tumours ekchondromas and enchondromas, and
also benign chondroblastomas.
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Malignant tumours of mesenchimal origin
The malignant tumour of connecting tissue is fibrosarcoma which
depending on the kataplasia degree can be differentiated and
lowdifferentiated, and also malignant hystiocytoma.
From fat tissue liposarcomas and malignant hybernomas
There are a malignant leiomyoma, malignant grainy-cellular
tumour and rabdosarcomas formed from muscles
Malignant tumours from vessels are angiosarcomas develop from
an endothelia and pericytes malignant haemangioendotelioma,
haemangiopericytoma, lymphangioendotelioma, Kaposhy's sarcoma.
There are malignant synoviomas in joints .
In a peritoneum, pleura, pericardium are malignant mesotheliomas.
Osteoblastic and osteolytic osteosarcomas, Yuing's sarcoma
develop in the bones.
In cartilaginous tissue are chondrosarcomas.
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Sarcomas

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Tumours of nervous tissue.
The tumours of nervous tissue have the
same clinical features: according the
motion they are almost all malignant
regardless of their morphological
description, because press on the
neighbouring areas of cerebrum,
distribution passes within the limits of
nervous tissue without remote
haematogenic metastases. The tumours
of nervous tissue divide on
neuroektodermal and meningovessels.

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Neuroektodermal tumours

sit are divided on astrocells,


oligodendroglial, ependimal and tumours
of chorionic epithelium, neuronal,
lowdifferentiated and embryonic.

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Neuroektodermal tumours

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Meningovessels tumours

develop from brain meninges and


presented by meningeomas and
durosarcomas.

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Tumours of melaninproducing
tissue
develop from the cells of neuroektodermal
origin melanocytes, which are in the basal
layer of epidermis, hair follicles,
leptomeninges and retina. Melanocytes can
be the source of tumular formations nevus
and malignant tumours melanomas.

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Tumours of melaninproducing
tissue

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I thank you for attention!

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