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CALDEROS INDUSTRIALES

CURSO:
Ing de Control

INTEGRANTES:

- Morales Valles Jhon Alex


- Sanchez Coronado Elizabeth Milagros
Steam boilers are devices in which water is boiled to produce steam. It is a device that is
designed to generate saturated steam. This saturated vapor is generated through a
transfer of energy (in the form of heat).
Because the steam pressure generated inside the boilers is very large, they are built with
highly resistant metals at high pressures, such as rolled steel.
TYPES OF BOILERS
Water tank boilers: The water
goes inside the pipes and the
mixture of water and steam. On
the outside, generally in cross-
flow, heat exchanges the fumes
products of the combustion. In
this type of boilers is the water or
thermal fluid that is intended to
heat, is the one that circulates
inside the tubes that make up the
combustion chamber and that
are immersed between the gases
or flames produced by the
combustion.
Pyrotubular boilers: The fluid in
the liquid state is in a vessel
crossed by tubes, through
which gases circulate at high
temperature, the product of a
combustion process. The water
evaporates upon contact with
the hot tubing products to the
exhaust gas circulation. Do not
confuse this definition with that
of a heat exchanger.
ELEMENTS
HOME: It is the space where the fuel is burned. It is also known as the "Combustion Chamber".
RACKS: They are metallic pieces in the form of bars, generally rectangular or trapezoidal, that go
inside the hearth.
ASHTRAY: It is the space that is under the grill and that serves to receive the ashes that fall from it.
MANPOSTERIA: It is the construction of refractory or common bricks whose purpose is: To cover the
boiler to avoid heat losses and to guide the gases and hot fumes in its route.
SMOKE CONDUCTS: These are the spaces through which the fumes and hot gases of the combustion
circulate.
FIREPLACE: It is the outlet conduit of gases and combustion fumes for the atmosphere.
WATER CHAMBER: It is the space or volume of the boiler occupied by the water. It has a maximum
upper level and a lower minimum level under which, the water, should never descend during the
operation of the boiler.
VACUUM CHAMBER: It is the space or volume that remains on the maximum upper level of water and
in which the steam generated by the boiler is stored.
FUNCTIONING

The food is water and once stored in the tank a high pressure pump pushes
the water into the boiler and gives the combustion in the oven. Where
through the processes of radiation, conduction and convection the water is
transformed into steam, in the upper part of the boiler is a chimney which
leads out the fumes or gases of combustion; At the bottom of the boiler
there is an outlet valve through which most of the powders, sludges and
other unwanted substances that are purged from the boiler leave the
system.
PROBLEMS
Pilot lights but main fuel valve does not Boiler made a lot of smoke The burner produces explosions.
open
Causes: Causes:
Causes: A) Poor regulation of the electrodes
A) Shortness of breath
A) dirty photocell B) Excess pressure of the fuel pump B) Defective electrodes
C) Defective nozzles C) Defective ignition transformer
B) Electronic control defective D) Lack of regulation in the damper D) Incorrect air intake
C) Solenoid valve disconnected E) Defective nozzles
Solution:
D) Coil of burned solenoid valve A) Regulate damp, clean air turbine Solution:
B) regular fuel return line A) Calibrate the electrodes
E) Defective pyrostat
C) Clean nozzles, replace if necessary. B) Replace them
Solution: Use correct sized nozzles C) Check it and, if necessary, replace it
D) Adjust it D) Regulating the damper, cleaning the
A) Clean the lens of the photocell pump filter
B) Check connections, relays, etc. E) Clean them, control them and, if
necessary, replace them
C) Connect the solenoid valve
D) Replace coil to solenoid valve
E) Check and adjust the pyrostat
Perforated pipes

Causes:
A) Corrosion
The boiler does not turn on B) Action of oxygen There is no water discharge to the boiler
C) Excessive incrustations with the pump running
Causes:
A) The tamper switch does not work Solution: Causes:
B) Clogged nozzles Good water treatment and continuous control A) Low pump speed
C) There is no spark of oxygen and PH. More frequent purging. B) The discharge pressure is very low
D) Ignition circuit Defective C) Impulse obstructed
E) There is no fuel D) Suction clogged
Twisted pipes, leakage at joints, leakage at E) The pump rotates in the opposite
Solution: the ends, broken pipes direction to that indicated in the housing
A) Replace them
B) Uncover them Causes: Solution:
C) Check transformer and ignition A) Low water level A) Check the electrical connections
control B) Incorrect starting and passing methods B) Clean the discharge pipe c) Discharge
D) Check components of the ignition C) Flame strike back the pump and remove the
circuit. obstruction.
E) Check the components of the fuel Solution: D) Remove and clean the filter, clean the
system A) System of low level of water defective, flaws suction pipe
in the floating, or malfunctions in the feeding E) Reverse two phases in the motor, if it is
system. of a phase to change it.
B) Follow the correct procedures
C) Adjust the burner
VISIT TO THE BOILERS OF THE LOAYZA HOSPITAL

The temperature approaches or reaches 300 degrees cent degrees begins to lose
efficiency,
Before performing the purge it is necessary to see if the indicator has enough water to carry
out the purge, that is done to remove the impurities or residues of the water.
The water entering the boiler water is treated with qu ically.
V alve has a relief that is where is the steam into the atmosphere, while m to s n is the
pressure or could notappreciate the steam.
V alve has a non - return check. Used to prevent water and return water miscarry
is to leave, whether I run the water in one direction.
Security System, works with pressure or n, when still generating heat pressure or n
continues to increase, when the man or meter reaches 60 psi u to matically switch is turned
off by the pressure or ny if if the pressure switch is locked usually it happens if you miscarry or
not work mec nico safety equipment is used.
Maintenance is every six months depending on usage.
The boilers should never be without water as t e n is not functioning, except when it is
har to maintenance.
Pirotubicas boiler dual type, operating with petr or read and gas.
Use for DISINFECTION or n of all fabrics used by the hospital.