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RE-200-E1

ZXR10 Layer 2 technology

Layer 2 Technology
V1122

ZTE University

Data Communication Group


ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn
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Objectives

working principle of switch/transparent switch


VLAN,trunk,802.1q

ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn


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Working principles of
transparent bridge

Station A

Segment A

1/1

Segment B 1/2

Station B

Switch has the same characteristics as transparent


bridge
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Switch Functions

Address learning
Forward/filter decision
Loop avoidance

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How Switches Learn Host Locations

MAC address table

A B

0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.3333
E0 E1

C E2 E3 D

0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444

Initial MAC address table is empty

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How Switches Learn Hosts Locations

MAC address table


E0: 0260.8c01.1111

A B

0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.3333
E0 E1

C D
E2 E3
0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444

Station A sends a frame to Station C


Switch caches station A MAC address to port E0 by learning the
source address of data frames
The frame from station A to station C is flooded out to all ports
except port E0 (unknown unicasts are flooded)
ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn
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How Switches Learn Host Locations

MAC address table


E0: 0260.8c01.1111
E3: 0260.8c01.4444
A B

0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.3333
E0 E1

C E2 E3 D

0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444

Station D sends a frame to station C


Switch caches station D MAC address to port E3 by learning the
source Address of data frames
The frame from station D to station C is flooded out to all ports except
port E3 (unknown unicasts are flooded)
ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn
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How Switches Filter Frames

MAC address table


E0: 0260.8c01.1111
E2: 0260.8c01.2222
A E1: 0260.8c01.3333 B
E3: 0260.8c01.4444
0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.3333
E0 E1
X
C X D
E2 E3
0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444

Station A sends a frame to station C


Destination is known, frame is not flooded

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Broadcast and Multicast Frames

MAC address table


E0: 0260.8c01.1111
A E2: 0260.8c01.2222 B
E1: 0260.8c01.3333
E3: 0260.8c01.4444
0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.3333
E0 E1

C E2 E3 D

0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444

Station D sends a broadcast or multicast frame


Broadcast and multicast frames are flooded to all
ports other than the originating port

ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn


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Objectives

working principle of switch/transparent switch


VLAN,trunk,802.1q
STP(Spanning tree protocol)
IGMP Snooping

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Ethernet Broadcast Domain

In a flat network, every device sees every


transmitted packet

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VLANs

A VLAN is a broadcast domain


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VLANs establish broadcast domain

Broadcast Domain 2

Broadcast Domain 1

VLANs plus routers limit broadcasts to the domain of origin

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VLAN Overview

Segmentation
3rd floor

Flexibility
2nd floor

Security
1st floor
SALES HR ENG

A VLAN = A broadcast domain = Logical network (subnet)


ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn
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VLAN Operations

Switch A

Red Black Green


VLAN VLAN VLAN

Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical


bridge

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VLAN Operations

Switch A Switch B

Red Black Green Red Black Green


VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN

Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical bridge


VLANs can span across multiple switches
ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn
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VLAN Operations

Switch A Switch B

Trunk

Fast Ethernet

Red Black Green Red Black Green


VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN

Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical bridge


VLANs can span across multiple switches
Trunks carries traffic for multiple VLANs
Trunks use special encapsulation to distinguish between
different VLANs

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VLAN TYPES

Static VLAN Dynamic VLAN

Trunk

Port e0/4 Port e0/9

VLAN5 VLAN10

VMPS
1111.1111.1111 = vlan 10

MAC = 1111.1111.1111

18
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Link Types

Access Links

An access link is a link that is a member of


only one VLAN

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Link Types (Cont.)

Trunk Links

A trunk link is capable of carrying multiple VLANs

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VLAN Frame Identification
VLAN1

VLAN1 VLAN2 VLAN3

Backbone

VLAN1
VLAN3
VLAN2
VLAN3 VLAN2

Specifically developed for multi-VLAN, inter-switch


communications
Places a unique identifier in header of each frame
Functions at Layer 2
21
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VLAN Identification Methods

Green Green

Fast Ethernet
Blue Blue
Green Blue Red

Red
Red

RED VLAN RED VLAN

Packets traversing a shared backbone carry VLAN


identification within the packet header

VLAN Identification Options:


Cisco ISL
IEEE 802.1Q
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VLAN Identification Using IEEE 802.1Q

Initial MAC 2-Byte TPID


Initial Type/Data New CRC
Address 2-Byte TCI

2-byte tag protocol identifier (TPID)


o A fixed value of 0x8100. This TPID value indicates that
the frame carries the 802.1Q/802.1p tag information.
2-byte tag control information (TCI)

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802.1q Tagging

802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone


Performed with ASIC
Not intrusive to client
stations, client does not see
the 802.1q header
VLAN Tag added
by incoming Effective between switches,
port Tagged Link
carries VLAN routers and switches,
identifier
switches and servers with
802.1q network interface
cards
VLAN Tag
stripped by
forwarding port
ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn
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VLAN Configuration Example1

Port 1 of switch A and port 2 of switch B belongs


to VLAN2, port 3 of switch A and port 4 of switch
B belongs to VLAN3

ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn


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VLAN Configuration Example3

Overlap VLAN
Port 1,2,3 be separated with each other,but they all
can visit the server

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Review

working principle of switch/transparent switch


VLAN,trunk,802.1q

27
ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn
The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.