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LOW-FLOW CALIBRATION SYSTEM

OPERATION STABILITY - EFFECTS OF


PRESSURE REGULATOR HYSTERESIS

Jim Chiun Wang


CareFusion, Respiratory Systems

Measurement Science Conference


March 22, 2013
Agenda
Introduction
Low-flow calibration system common setup
Typical calibration tolerance spec
Observed flow and pressure fluctuations
Pneumatic system transient analysis-
Plenum Chamber
LFE
Pressure Regulator
Hysteresis
Hysteresis Models
Pneumatic system Simulink model
Simulation Results
Introduction
Low-flow devices for medical applications
Low-flow devices for semiconductor applications
Flow rate < 1 sccm
Accuracy requirement ~ 1% of reading

Next - Calibration Accuracy Rqmt


Typical Calibration Accuracy Requirement

p 4 psi
.at 30 sccm N2 full-scale

p 10 cmWC
Accuracy requirement:
..at 100 SLM full-scale
1% rdg at 1% SP
p 0.02 mmHg (9.3 Pascal)
Accuracy requirement:
1% rdg at 1% SP

p 0.001 cmWC

Next Common Calibration Setup


Low-flow calibration system common setup

Next Observed Flow Fluctuations


Observed Calibration Flow Fluctuations

Next Observed Flow Fluctuations


Observed Flow Fluctuations

Quasi-periodic
Amplitude more-or-less (but not) exactly
constant
Amplitude does not decay with time
Does not look like damped second-order system

Next Compare with 2nd order system


Response of a Typical Damped Second-Order
System

Next Pneumatic System Transient Analysis


Pneumatic system transient analysis

Conservation of Mass
Plenum Chamber
Laminar Flow Element Flow Meter
Pressure Regulator
Pressure Regulator Hysteresis

Next Conservation of Mass


Pneumatic system transient analysis

dN
N NR NM
dt

Next Plenum Chamber Charging Transient


Plenum Chamber Charging Transient

Al-Ibrahim (1992)

Next Plenum Chamber Nonuniform Temperature


Plenum Chamber Nonuniform
Temperature Distribution

Dicken (2006)
Next Plenum Chamber Nonuniform Temperature by CFD
Plenum Chamber Nonuniform
Temperature by CFD

Dicken (2006)
Next Pneumatic System Transient Analysis
Pneumatic system transient analysis

dN
N NR NM
dt

dN d PV V dP
N

dt dt RT RT dt

Next Laminar Flow Element


Laminar Flow Element

Fully-developed laminar flow


Thin long tube with negligible entrance effect
P-Pa << P; M<<1
Gas compressibility effect neglected

Next Pressure Regulators


Pressure Regulator Types

Two-Stage Pressure
Regulator

Single-Stage Pressure
Regulator

Next Pressure Regulators


Pressure Regulator as a Mechanical System

Single-Stage Pressure Regulator

Afshari(2010)

Next Pressure Regulator Issues


Pressure Regulator Issues
Steady-State Performance Issues
Lock-up
Droop
Hysteresis
Dynamic Performance Issues
Hunting over controls (goes too far) often
associated with oversized valves
Stiction probably due to friction

Next Issues: Droop & Lock-Up


Pressure Regulator Droop & Lock-Up

Menz (2011)
Next Issue: Hysteresis
Pressure Regulator Hysteresis

Menz (2011)

Next Hysteresis is everywhere


Hysteresis in a Cats Lung

Harris (2005)
Next Hysteresus Models
Hysteresis Models

Janaideh et al (2009)

Next Simplest Relay Model


Relay Hysteresis Model

Next Relay Model Parameters


Relay Hysteresis Model


P Ps : N R Fi

P Ps : N R 0

Switch on (from 0 to Fi) condition:


dP
P Ps ; N R Fi ; and 0
dt
Switch off (from Fi to 0) condition:
dP
P Ps ; N R 0 ; and 0
dt
Next Putting It Together
Pneumatic System Transient Analysis

dN
N NR NM
dt

dN d PV V dP
N

dt dt RT RT dt

Next Matlab/Simulink Model


Pneumatic System Transient Model
Plenum Chamber

System Time Constant

- Relay Hystersis Model (Matlab/Simulink)

Next Simulink Model


Pneumatic System Simulink model

Next Sample results


Simulation Results
Chamber Pressure

Simulation Results
Simulation Results
Pressure Regulator Flow

Simulation Results
Simulation Results

= 100

= 200
Simulation Results

= 400Results
Simulation

= 800

Next Discussions
Discussions
Numerical model simulates the behavior of low-flow
calibration pneumatic system with regulator hysteresis
Results qualitatively confirm that pressure regulator hysteresis
leads to system limit-cycle behavior
Deterministic model could not reproduce the real stochastic
behavior of the pressure regulator
Low-flow devices calibration suggestions:
To avoid valve hunting - Choose pressure regulator with the
right flow capacity and matching (small) orifice
To avoid pressure regulator hysteresis Use a large plenum
chamber and simply bypass the pressure regulator
Thank You !