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INFORMATION

STORAGE
MANAGEMENT

Introduction to Information Storage


and Management -1
Upon completion of this lecture, you will be
able to:
Describe the importance of information to
individuals and to businesses
Define data and information
Discuss the categories of data
Describe the storage architectures and their
evolution

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Digital universe The Information Explosion
21st Century is information era
Information is being created at ever increasing rate
Information has become critical for success
We live in an on-command, on-demand world
Example: Social networking sites, e-mails, video and
photo sharing website, online shopping, search
engines etc
Information management is a big challenge
Organization seek to Store -> Protect -> Optimize ->
Leverage the information optimally

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Collection of raw facts from which conclusions may be drawn

Most data is being


converted into a digital Video

format 01010101010
Driven by user demand Photo 10101011010
Facilitated by 00010101011
Increase in data processing 01010101010
capabilities Book
10101010101
New and cheaper peripherals 01010101010
Lower cost and increased speed of
storage Letter Digital Data

Affordable and faster networks

Who creates data?


Individuals
Businesses

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Data can be categorized as either structured or unstructured
data
Structured:
Data Bases
Spread Sheets E-Mail Attachments PDFs

Unstructured X-Rays
Forms Check Unstructured (80%)
Images
Manuals
Audio Instant Messages

Movies Images
Documents

Over 80% of enterprise


Forms
Web Pages

Information is unstructured Rich Media


Contracts
Invoices

Audio Video

Structured (20%)
Rows and Columns
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What do individuals/businesses do with the data
they collect?
They turn it into information
Information is the intelligence and knowledge
derived from data
Businesses analyze raw data in order to
identify meaningful trends
For example:
Buying habits and patterns of customers
Health history of patients
Virtuous cycle of information
Information begets information: Information can
create another new information

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Centralized information
storage and processing

Network Network

Wired Wireless Wireless Wired

Accessing
Uploading
information
information

Creators of Users of
information Information

Demand for more


Information

Virtuous cycle of information

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Creating a competitive advantage
Identifying new business opportunities
Buying/spending patterns
Internet stores, retail stores, supermarkets
Customer satisfaction/service
Tracking shipments, and deliveries
Identifying patterns that lead to changes in existing business
Reduced cost
Just-in-time inventory, eliminating over-stocking of products,
optimizing shipment and delivery
New services
Security alerts for stolen credit card purchases
Targeted marketing campaigns
Communicate to bank customers with high account balances
about a special savings plan
Introduction to Information Storage
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Data created by individuals/businesses must be stored
for further processing
Type of storage used is based on the type of data and
the rate at which it is created and used
Examples:
Individuals: Digital camera, Cell phone, DVDs, Hard
disk
Businesses: Hard disk, external disk arrays, tape
library
Storage model: An evolution
Centralized: mainframe computers
Decentralized: Client server model (Data spread
across many servers)
Centralized: Storage Networking (Hugh respositories)
Introduction to Information Storage
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Multi Protocol
Router
LAN FC SAN

IP SAN

RAID Array SAN / NAS

JBOD

Internal DAS

Time
Introduction to Information Storage -
and Management 10
Key points covered in this lesson:
Importance of information
Data, information and storage
Categories of data
Storage architectures and their evolution

Introduction to Information Storage -


and Management 11
Challenges
in Data Storage
and Management

Introduction to Information Storage -


and Management 12
Upon completion of this lecture, you will be able
to:
List the five core elements of a data center
infrastructure
Describe the requirements of storage systems
for optimally supporting business activities
Explain the importance of Information Lifecycle
Management
List the activities in developing the ILM strategy

Introduction to Information Storage -


and Management 13
Applications
Databases Database Management System
(DBMS) and the physical and logical storage
of data
Servers/Operating systems
Networks (LAN and SAN)
Storage arrays

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Data Center Infrastructure 14
Storage
Server
Array
Client Storage Area
Network
Local Area
Network

Application
User OS and Database
Interface DBMS

Consider an order processing system consisting of:


Application for order entry
Database Management System (DBMS) to store customer and product
information
Server/Operating System (OS) on which the application and database
programs are run
Networks that provide
Connectivity between Clients and the Application/Database Server (LAN)
Connectivity between the Server and the Storage system (SAN)
Storage Array database is stored on physical disks in the storage array

Data Center Infrastructure


Storage
Server
Array
Client Storage Area
Network
Local Area
Network

Application
User OS and Database
Interface DBMS

A customer order is entered via the Application User Interface on


a client

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Data Center Infrastructure 16
Storage
Server Array
Client Storage Area
Network
Local Area
Network

OS and Database
DBMS

A customer order is entered via the Application User Interface on


a client
The client accesses the server over a Local Area Network

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Data Center Infrastructure 17
Storage
Server Array
Client Storage Area
Network
Local Area
Network

O/S and Database


DBMS
A DBMS uses the operating system on the server to read and
write this data to the physical location on a disk

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Data Center Infrastructure 18
Storage
Server Array
Client Storage Area
Network
Local Area
Network

O/S and Database


DBMS

A DBMS uses the operating system on the server to read and


write this data to the physical location on disk
A dedicated Storage Area Network provides the communication
link between the server and the storage array, and transports the
read/write commands and data between the server and the
storage array

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Data Center Infrastructure 19
Storage
Server Array
Client Storage Area
Network
Local Area
Network

Database

A DBMS uses the operating system on the server to read and


write this data to the physical location on disk
A Network provides the communication link between the client
and the server, and transports the read/write commands and data
between the server and the storage array
A storage array receives the read/write commands and data from
the server and performs the necessary operations to store the
data on the physical disks
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Data Center Infrastructure 20
The application should be optimized for fast
interaction with the DBMS
The tables in the database should be constructed
with care so the number of read/write operations
can be minimized
The server should have sufficient CPU and
memory resources to satisfy application and
DBMS needs
The different networks should provide fast
communication between client and server, as well
as server and storage array
The storage array should service the read/write
requests from the server for optimal performance

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Data Center Infrastructure 21
When the DBMS receives a request from the
application:
It first searches the server memory; if data is found there,
the operation takes about a millisecond
If not, it uses the operating system to request the data
from the storage array
Dedicated high speed networks transport this request to
the storage array
Intelligent storage arrays can deliver the requested data
within a few milliseconds, and are typically configured to
protect data in the event of drive failures

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Data Center Infrastructure 22
Availability

Data Integrity Security

Manageability

Performance Capacity

Scalability

Introduction to Information Storage -


and Management 23
Availability: All data center elements should be
designed to ensure accessibility. The inability of
users to access data can have a significant
negative impact on a business.
Security: Polices, procedures, and proper
integration of the data center core elements
that will prevent unauthorized access to
information must be established.
Scalability: Data center operations should be
able to allocate additional processing
capabilities or storage on demand, without
interrupting business operations.
Introduction to Information Storage -
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Performance: All the core elements of the data center
should be able to provide optimal performance and service
all processing requests at high speed.
Data integrity: Data integrity refers to mechanisms such as
error correction codes or parity bits which ensure that data
is written to disk exactly as it was received.
Capacity: Data center operations require adequate
resources to store and process large amounts of data
efficiently. When capacity requirements increase, the data
center must be able to provide additional capacity without
interrupting availability, or, at the very least, with minimal
disruption.
Manageability: A data center should perform all operations
and activities in the most efficient manner. Manageability
can be achieved through automation and the reduction of
human (manual) intervention in common tasks.
Introduction to Information Storage -
and Management 25
Exploding digital universe
Multifold increase of information growth: The rate
of information growth is increasing exponentially.
Duplication of data to ensure high availability and
repurposing has also contributed to the multifold
increase of information growth
Increasing dependency on information
The strategic use of information plays an important
role in determining the success of a business and
provides competitive advantages in the marketplace
Changing value of information
Information that is valuable today may become less
important tomorrow. The value of information often
changes over time.
Introduction to Information Storage -
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Constraints include:
Cost
Physical environment
Maintenance and support
Compliance regulatory and legal
Hardware and software infrastructure
Interoperability and compatibility (between
software such as DBMS and APPs and between
hardware such as switches etc.)

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Data Center Infrastructure 27
Data Center management activities include:
Provisioning/Capacity/Resource Planning
resource allocation, proactive planning and provisioning
for anticipated increases in capacity have to be
performed
Monitoring
array performance, data security and availability have to
be continually monitored
Reporting
periodic reporting on performance, capacity utilization,
internal chargeback for cost recovery should be
performed

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Data Center Infrastructure 28
Data Storage Infrastructure
Information Lifecycle

Introduction to Information Storage -


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Protect

New Process Deliver Warranty


order order order claim
Time
Value

Fulfilled Aged Warranty


order data Voided

Create Access Migrate Archive Dispose

A proactive strategy that enables an IT organization


to effectively manage the data throughout its lifecycle
Introduction to Information Storage -
and Management 30
Policy-based Alignment of Storage Infrastructure with Data Value

AUTOMATED

Classify Implement Integrated Organize


data / policies with management storage
applications information of storage resources to
based on management environment align with data
business rules tools classes

FLEXIBLE

Introduction to Information Storage -


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Classifying data and applications on the basis of
business rules and policies to enable differentiated
treatment of information
Implementing policies by using information
management tools, starting from the creation of
data and ending with its disposal
Managing the environment by using integrated
tools to reduce operational complexity
Organizing storage resources in tiers to align the
resources with data classes, and storing
information in the right type of infrastructure
based on the informations current value
Introduction to Information Storage -
and Management 32
Improved utilization
Tiered storage platforms
Simplified management
Processes, tools and automation
Simplified backup and recovery
A wider range of options to balance the need for business
continuity
Maintaining compliance
Knowledge of what data needs to be protected for what length
of time
Lower Total Cost of Ownership
By aligning the infrastructure and management costs with
information value

Introduction to Information Storage -


and Management 33
Key points covered in this lesson:
The five core elements of a Data Center
infrastructure
Key requirements of storage systems to support
business activities, as well as some of the
constraints
ILM strategy
Importance
Characteristics
Activities in developing ILM strategy
ILM implementation
Benefits of ILM

Introduction to Information Storage -


and Management 34
Key points covered in this Chapter:
Importance of data, information, and storage
infrastructure
Types of data, its value, and key management
requirements of a storage system
Evolution of storage architectures
Core elements of a data center
Importance of the ILM strategy

Introduction to Information Storage -


and Management 35