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The Manufacture of Aluminium

Alloy Wheels
Aluminium Alloy Wheels

These are produced in a wide range of


sizes and designs.
Some Examples
WHEEL SIZE PART No OFFSET RANGE REAR SPACE MIN-- PCD RANGE --MAX WHEEL WEIGHT
85mm -100mm - 103.3mm 3.6 kg
10 x 4.5 WX1045 +15 to +30
3.4"- 4" - 4" 8 lbs

WHEEL SIZE PART No OFFSET RANGE REAR SPACE MIN-- PCD RANGE --MAX WHEEL WEIGHT
85mm - 94mm 100mm 114.3mm 4.10 kg
12 x 5 WX1250 +10 to + 19
3.4" - 3.7" 4" 4 1\2" 9 lbs

WHEEL SIZE PART No OFFSET RANGE REAR SPACE MIN-- PCD RANGE --MAX WHEEL WEIGHT
93mm -101mm 95mm 114.3 4.3 kg
13 x 5.5 WX1355 +12 to + 20
3.4" - 4" 3 3/4" 4 1/2" 9.5 lbs

WHEEL SIZE PART No OFFSET RANGE REAR SPACE MIN-- PCD RANGE --MAX WHEEL WEIGHT
97mm-112mm 95mm 114.3mm 4.55 kg
13 x 6 WX1360 +10 to +25
3.8" - 4.4" 3 3/4" 4 1/2" 10 lbs
Production Flow
A mix of new alloy and
recycled wheel is introduced
to the Furnace, and the
Robot transfers charges to
each Press and unloads
each in turn to the Water
Bath. The wheels are
Press
1
inspected before Machining
and Painting.
Machining
Furnace Water X-ray
robot and store
station
bath painting

Press
2
Process Flow in More Detail
Store of
Store of Rejected Wheels
Raw
Materials

Press 1

No No

Machining Final
Prepare Water X-Ray
Furnace Robot OK?
and Checks Store
Materials Bath Yes Painting OK? Yes

Press 2

Work Order Close Work


Received Order
Some Problems with Product

defect Porosity Inclusions Overfill Shrinkage Others

Frequency 2414 1289 486 410 534

percentage 47 25 9 8 10

Cumulative
percentage 47 72 82 90 100

Need link to porosity index which is used later


Some Possible Causes
mould type prime material
supplier

painting % recycle type


temperature
type
deoxidant
degassing quantity
lubrication
cleaning temperature
quantity
POROSITY
mould strip
instructions pressure
cycle speed
manipulation
fill time
manual
work pressure time
cleaning

method machine
What to Investigate?
FACTORS POSSIBLE LEVELS
Press A Press A Press B Both

painting mould B Type A Type B

(1) (2)
mould C 620 640 660 680 700
temperature
injection pressure D 800 850 900 950 1000

recycling E No (0) Yes (1)

degassing F No (0) Yes (1)


Current Settings
Press Both

Painting mould Type A

Mould temperature 640C

Mould pressure 900 kg/cm2

Recycling Yes (20%)

Degassing Yes
With these conditions, the mean porosity index
(average of ten tyres) is 3.65
Porosity Index with standard settings
3.8

3.7809

3.7
C8

3.6538

3.6

3.5267

3.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Rows
Best Settings (after DoE)
Press Both

Painting mould Type B

Mould temperature 660C

Mould pressure 1000 kg/cm2

Recycling Yes (20%)

Degassing No

With these conditions, the mean porosity index


(average of ten tyres) is 2.46
Porosity Index with best settings
2.7

2.6 2.5987
C8

2.5

2.461

2.4

2.3233
2.3
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Rows