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What Is Induction Motor And

How Does It Work?

Induction motor is one of the motors used most commonly in many
applications. As it runs at a speed less than the synchronous speed it
is called as asynchronous motor.
Define Synchronous speed:
In a rotary machine the speed of rotation of the magnetic field is
called the Synchronous speed and it depends on the frequency and
number of poles of the machine.
It is said that the induction motors speed is less than the
synchronous speed because the rotating magnetic field generated in
the stator will produce flux with the rotor and this is the reason
behind the rotors rotation.

The rotor will never reach to the speed of the magnetic field that is
synchronous speed because of the lag of flux current in the rotor
with flux current in the stator.
There are two different types of induction motor and it is one the
basis of input supply they are: single phase induction motor and
three phase induction motor.
Single phase induction motor is not a self-starting motor but the
latter is!

Working Concept of Induction Motor:
For making a machine to rotate there is a need for double excitation.
For instance if you are considering a DC motor, one supply will be
given to the stator and the other supply will be given to the rotor
with the help of brush arrangement. It is really interesting to know
the work of an induction motor because there is one supply in need.
Flux will get generated in the coil due to the flow of current in the
coil while giving supply to the stator winding. For creating a short
circuit in the rotor itself the rotor winding is arranged accordingly.

According to Faradays law of electromagnetic induction current will
initiate to flow in the coil of the rotor as the rotor coils are short
circuited. During the time of current flow another flux will get
generated in the rotor. There are two flux one the rotor and the other
is stator; the rotor flux lags with respect to the stator flux. Due to
this, the blades will feel a twisting which will create the blades to
shift. This will create a torque and will make the rotor to rotate in
the direction of rotating magnetic field. So the speed of the rotor
depends on the input supply which can be adjusted and this is
concept of the induction motor.

Types Induction Motor
Single Phase Induction Motor
Split Phase induction motor
Capacitor start induction motor
Capacitor start capacitor run induction motor
Shaded pole induction motor

Three Phase Induction Motor

Squirrel cage induction motor
Slip ring induction motor

Earlier we have mentioned that single phase is not self-starting
whereas three phase is self-starting. So let us see what is self-
When the device automates running without any exterior power to
the device, then it is known as self-starting. For instance the fan
starts to spin when you put on the switch. Point to be observed that
fan used at home is single phase induction motor which is naturally
not self-starting.

Reason for Three Phase Induction Motor is Self-Starting

In this system there are three individual phase lines with a difference
of 120 degrees. The rotor moves because of this difference in phase
in the rotating magnetic field. For example if we consider three
phases a, b, and c; if a is magnetized, the rotor will move towards it;
and if b is magnetized the rotor will shift towards b and it is the
same for c. So this causes motion in the rotor.

Reason behind Single Phase Induction Motor is not Self-Starting

The most interesting thing over here is it has only one phase but still
it makes the rotor to rotate. Here we need to know why it is not self-
starting and how to overcome it. As we all know that AC supply is
sinusoidal wave and it generates uniform magnetic field and as a
result there will be no torque and thus the rotor will not rotate. This
issue has been set by making the stator winding into two winding,
one is main winding and another is auxiliary winding and a series
fixed capacitor with the auxiliary winding. This will produce a phase
difference and a torque thereby rotating the rotor.

We can make out that the rotor does not rotate when the capacitor is
turned off from the device but if we give a force with hand it will
begin to rotate. So this is the reason of using capacitor in the single
phase induction motor.
There are many electrical engineering training institute in Pune to
make your career as an electrical engineer in this field.