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Reinforced Concrete

Design

Chapter-4
Design of Beams
Objective of this chapter

In chapter-2 analysis of a section (flexural


member) was discussed for two mechanisms
(bending and shear.
This chapter is dedicated to the beam design as
a full package (preliminary, final and detailing), it
will include:
Simply supported beam design
Continuous beam design
Design Stages

There are Three (3) basic design stages

1. Preliminary analysis and member sizing

2. Detailed analysis and reinforcement


design

3. Serviceability analysis
Preliminary Analysis and
Member Sizes
This stage includes
Idealisation of beam
Single span or multiple span
Effective span length
Support condition
Member Sizing (BS 8110-1997 guidelines)
Assigning of Loads (from slab, self weight, wall etc)
Assigning Concrete grade
Durability and Fire Rating
Concrete Cover
Preliminary Analysis and
Member Sizes
Preliminary Analysis and
Member Sizes

1
Lx
2
Ly

A B
Preliminary Analysis and
Member Sizes
Effective Span

Here the effective span is the LESSER of:


The distance between centers of bearings, A
The CLEAR span plus the effective depth, D+d
Member Sizing

In academic exercises; examples undertaken have


started from a point where details of the beam cross
section are given. In the usual design situation we need
to be able to start from scratch!!.
All designers develop their own techniques to help them
start to tackle the problem in hand. The following
example shows a simple method of sizing a beam using:
Span/Effective depth ratio to estimate a
suitable depth for the section.
Limiting the design shear stress (v = V/bd) for
example 1.2N/mm2.
Member Sizing
Member Sizing

Width of the beam, b


b = wall thickness
b = 0.6*depth, or
200 mm
Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

Structural Analysis of Beams for Maximum


BM and Shear
Simply supported
2
wl
M
8
wl
V
2
Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

Continuous
Symmetrical span and loading
BS-8110 moment and shear coefficient
Unsymmetrical span and loading
Moment distribution or computer analysis
Moment and shear envelope for different load patterns
Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

Analysis of section for critical BM


Choose critical values of BM for every span, maximum ve
and maximum +ve
Check for singly reinforced and/or doubly reinforced
Calculation of area of steel, AS and check for steel yielding.
Analysis of section for critical Shear, V
Calculation of concrete shear, vc
Calculation of shear reinforcement
BS 8110 codes requirements
Detailing of Beam
Detailed analysis and reinforcement design
Detailed analysis and reinforcement design
Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

Critical value of positive moment

Critical value of negative moment

Moment Envelope for Three Loading Arrangements


Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Load, UDL

Ly

Lx
Slab Loads = w kN/m2
Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Load, UDL

wLx/2
(Ly-Lx)/2 Lx/2

V kN/m

Lx/2

Equivalent UDL, Vo = [wLx/6]*[3 (Lx/Ly)2] Equivalent UDL, Vo = wLx/3


BS 8110 requirements

Reinforcement Details
The code (BS8110) requires the final design to pay
attention to:
1. Min and Max reinforcement as a percentage of the
gross CSA. (Cl. 3.12.5.3. & 3.12.6.1) - This will on the
one hand, help the control of cracking, increase
durability, while on the other assist placing and
compaction.
BS 8110 requirements

Reinforcement Details
2. Min and Max spacing (sb) of tension reinforcement
(Cl. 3.12.11.1.) - To allow good compaction and to
ensure crack widths do not exceed 0.3 mm
respectively.
Beam reinforcement detailing

T8-300 c/c

Effective Span
Beam reinforcement detailing
Anchorage Bond

The steel reinforcement bars subjected to direct


tension as shown in the Figure must be properly
anchored, in order to pilling them out of
concrete.
Bars subjected to forces induced by flexure
must similarly be anchored to develop their
design stresses.
The anchorage depends on the bond between
the bar and the concrete, and the area of
contact
Anchorage Bond

Let
L = minimum anchorage length to prevent pull-out
= bar size or nominal diameter
fbu = ultimate anchorage bond stress
fs = the direct tensile or compressive stress in the bar
Anchorage Bond
tensile pull out bar area * direct force
2
fs
4
anchorage force contact area * anchorage bond stress
L * fbu
therefore
2
L * fbu fs
4 L
hence
fs
L L
4f bu
fs 0.95f y Effective Span
0.95fy
L
4f bu
Anchorage Bond

L
Effective Span
Anchorage Bond
Therefore
fbu fcu
The coefficient depends on the bar type or whether it is in tension or
compression. Values of are given in the following table

Coefficient,
Bar Type
Bar in Tension Bar in Compression
Plain bars 0.28 0.35
Type1: Deformed bars 0.40 0.50
Type 2: Deformed bars 0.50 0.63
Fabric 0.65 0.81
Anchorage Bond
Anchorage values for bends and hooks
Beam Design Example

Slab thickness = 200 mm



2
Finishes = 2 kN/m
2
Live load = 3 kN/m

4m
8m
Beam Design Example

Figure on last slide shows a one-way slab. Design


the long span beam of the slab. Following data is
given:
Choose the appropriate size of the beam
Concrete strength, fcu = 45 MPa
Steel yield strength, fy = 460 MPa
Total cover = 50 mm
Beam Design Example

Preliminary Design
Effective span = 8.0 m (c/c spacing between columns)
Beam width, b = 200 mm
Effective depth, d = span/20 = 8000/20 = 400 mm
Choose 500 mm deep beam d = 500 50 = 450 mm
OK
Beam Design Example
Loading on beam
From slab
gk = (0.2*24 + 2 )*(4/2) = 13.6 kN/m
qk = 3*4/2 = 6 kN/m
Self weight of beam
gk,beam = 0.2*0.5*24 = 2.4 kN/m
Total design load, wu
wu = 1.4*(13.6 + 2.4) + 1.6* 6 = 32 kN/m
Beam Design Example
Analysis of Beam
Mmax = wul2/8 = 32*82/8 = 256 kN-m
Vmax = wul/2 = 32*8/2 = 128 kN
Beam Design Example
Design of Beam
Mu 0.156fcubd2 = (0.156*45*200*5502)/106 = 284.3 kN-m
M = 256 < Mu = 284.3
The beam is singly reinforced
K = M/(fcubd2) = 256*106/(45*200*4502) = 0.140 < 0.156
z = d[0.5 + (0.25 (K/0.9))1/2]
z = 450*[0.5 + (0.25 (0.140/0.9))1/2] = 362.9
BS8110 Limit 0.95d > z > 0.75d
z = 0.95*450 = 427.5 (OK)
Beam Design Example
Bending Steel Reinforcement, As
As = M/(0.95fyz) = 256*106/(0.95*460*362.9)
As = 1614 mm2
Use 2-T32
As, provided = 2*804 = 1608
As, min = 0.13%*200*500 = 130 mm2
As, max = 4%*200*500 = 4000 mm2
Beam Design Example
SHEAR DESIGN
V = 128 kN
v = V/bd = 128000/(200*450) = 1.42 MPa < 5 MPa OK
100As/bd = 100*1608/(200*450) = 1.78
vc for 25 MPa = 0.76 MPa (from Table)
vc, for 45 MPa = (45/25)1/3*0.76 = 0.92 MPa
0.5vc = 0.46 < v and vc + 0.4 = 1.32 < v
Use 2 legged 8mm dia links Asv = 101 mm2
S = (0.95fyvAsv)/[b(v-vc)] = (0.95*460*101)/[200*(1.42-0.92)]
S = 441 use 2T8-300c/c
Example of Design of a
continuous beam
GIVEN
b, mm 200 b, mm 200 b, mm 200 b, mm 200
Beam Beam Beam Beam
h, mm 700 H, mm 700 H, mm 700 H, mm 700

Span-1 Span-2 Span-3 Span-4


Beam Loading A B C D E
7 7 7 7
Total, wu, kN/m 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
Example of Design of a
continuous beam
Bending Design
Moment Coefficient 0 0.09 -0.11 0.07 -0.08 0.07 -0.11 0.09 0
F, kN 140.0 140.0 140.0 140.0
Moment, kN-m 0 88 -108 69 -78 69 -108 88 0

fcu, MPa 40 40 40 40
fy, MPa 460 460 460 460
Cover, mm 50 50 50 50
Mu = 0.156fcubd2 527 527 527 527 527 527 527
SR SR SR SR SR SR SR
K 0.026 0.032 0.020 0.023 0.020 0.032 0.026
z, mm 631 626 635 633 635 626 631
z <= 0.95d NOT OK OK NOT OK OK NOT OK OK NOT OK
As 320 394 247 284 247 394 320
Diameter, mm 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Number of Bars 2 2 1 1 1 2 2
Minimum steel check OK OK OK OK OK OK OK
Maximum steel check OK OK OK OK OK OK OK
Example of Design of a
continuous beam

Shear Design
A B C D E
Shear Coefficient 0.45 0.6 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.6 0.45
Shear, V (kN) 63 84 77 77 77 77 84 63
v, Mpa 0.48 0.65 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.65 0.48
100As/bd 0.48 0.24 0.24 0.48
vc for fcu = 25 0.56 0.45 0.45 0.56
vc for fcu 0.66 0.52 0.52 0.66
0.5vc 0.33 0.26 0.26 0.33
vc + 0.4 1.06 0.92 0.92 1.06
dia 6 6 6 6
Legged 2 2 2 2
Sv -713 -10409 1764 1764 1764 1764 -10409 -713
0.75d 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5
Spacing 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300
Example of Design of a
continuous beam
Continuous Beam Deaign on Line-1
Lx, m 1 Lx, m 1 Lx, m 1 Lx, m 1
Ly, m 1 Ly, m 1 Ly, m 1 Ly, m 1
Slab at Left

Slab at Left

Slab at Left

Slab at Left
Type TWO WAY Type TWO WAY Type TWO WAY Type TWO WAY
T, mm 0 T, mm 0 T, mm 0 T, mm 0
qk, Kpa 0 qk, Kpa 0 qk, Kpa 0 qk, Kpa 0
gk self, Kpa 0 gk self, Kpa 0 gk self, Kpa 0 gk self, Kpa 0
gk fin, Kpa 0 gk fin, Kpa 0 gk fin, Kpa 0 gk fin, Kpa 0
gk, Kpa 0 gk, Kpa 0 gk, Kpa 0 gk, Kpa 0
Lx, m 4 Lx, m 4 Lx, m 4 Lx, m 4
Ly, m 8 Ly, m 8 Ly, m 8 Ly, m 8
Slab at Right

Slab at Right

Slab at Right

Slab at Right
Type ONE WAY Type ONE WAY Type ONE WAY Type ONE WAY
T, mm 150 T, mm 150 T, mm 150 T, mm 150
qk, Kpa 3 qk, Kpa 3 qk, Kpa 3 qk, Kpa 3
gk self, Kpa 3.6 gk self, Kpa 3.6 gk self, Kpa 3.6 gk self, Kpa 3.6
gk fin, Kpa 1.5 gk fin, Kpa 1.5 gk fin, Kpa 1.5 gk fin, Kpa 1.5
gk, Kpa 5.1 gk, Kpa 5.1 gk, Kpa 5.1 gk, Kpa 5.1

H, m 2.95 H, m 2.95 H, m 2.95 H, m 2.95


Wall T, mm 200 Wall T, mm 200 Wall T, mm 200 Wall T, mm 200
g, kN/m3 18 g, kN/m3 18 g, kN/m3 18 g, kN/m3 18
b, mm 200 b, mm 200 b, mm 200 b, mm 200
Beam Beam Beam Beam
H, mm 550 H, mm 550 H, mm 550 H, mm 550
Span-1 Span-2 Span-3 Span-4
Beam Loading A B C D E
8 8 8 8
From Slab, qk, kN/m 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
From Slab, gk, kN/m 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2
Self Weight, kN/m 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6
Wall Load, kN/m 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.6
Total, wu, kN/m 42.4 42.4 42.4 42.4

Moment Coefficient 0 0.09 -0.11 0.07 -0.08 0.07 -0.11 0.09 0


F, kN 339.6 339.6 339.6 339.6
Moment, kN-m 0 244 -299 190 -217 190 -299 244 0

fcu, MPa 45 45 45 45
fy, MPa 460 460 460 460
Cover, mm 40 40 40 40
Mu = 0.156fcubd2 365 365 365 365 365 365 365
SR SR SR SR SR SR SR
K 0.104 0.128 0.081 0.093 0.081 0.128 0.104
z, mm 442 423 459 450 459 423 442
z <= 0.95d OK OK OK OK OK OK OK
As 1267 1617 948 1104 948 1617 1267
Diameter, mm 25 32 25 25 25 32 25
Number of Bars 3 3 2 3 2 3 3
Minimum steel check OK OK OK OK OK OK OK
Maximum steel check OK OK OK OK OK OK OK
A B C D E
Shear Coefficient 0.45 0.6 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.6 0.45
Shear, V (kN) 153 204 187 187 187 187 204 153
v, Mpa 1.50 2.00 1.83 1.83 1.83 1.83 2.00 1.50
100As/bd 1.44 0.96 0.96 1.44
vc for fcu = 25 0.85 0.74 0.74 0.85
vc for fcu 1.03 0.90 0.90 1.03
0.5vc 0.52 0.45 0.45 0.52
vc + 0.4 1.43 1.30 1.30 1.43
dia 6 6 6 6
Legged 3 3 3 3
Sv 400 193 200 200 200 200 193 400
0.75d 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5
Spacing 300 150 150 150 150 150 150 300
Design of central beam as T-Beam for
the following data
1. LOADING
1a. Slab Loading
Self weight = 0.15x24 = 3.6 kN/m2
Finishes = 2.0 kN/m2
gk = 5.6 kN/m2
qk = 3.0 kN/m2
wu, slab = 1.4*5.6+1.6*3= 12.64 kN/m2

1b. Beam Loading


From slab = wu,slab*(half of left slab+ half of right slab)
= 12.64*(2 + 2) = 50.56 kN/m
Self weight of beam = 1.4*(0.2*0.7*24) = 4.7 kN/m
Wall loading = 1.4*10 = 14 kN/m

Total design load, wu = 69.2 say 70 kN/m


2. ANALYSIS (Shear Force and Bending Moment)
3.0 Design for Maximum Bending Moment
(To check the location of neutral axis)
Assume fcu = 25 MPa and fy 460 MPa

M 1260 x106
K 2
2
0.0482
b f d f cu 25 x2400 x660
Singly Re inf orced
k 0.0482

z d 0.5 0.25 660 0.5 0.25 622.5
0.9
0.9
0.95d 0.95 * 660 627
OK
S 2d z 2660 622.5 74.96 150
NA lies Inside Flange
M 1260 x106
As 4631mm2
0.95 f y z 0.95 * 460 * 622.5
BS 8110 Checks for Minimum and Maximum Steel
0.13%bh = (0.13/100)*200*700 = 182 mm2
4%bh = (4/100)*200*700 = 5600 mm2

Use 4T40
Asprovided = 4*1256 = 5026 Hence OK

100As/bd = 100*5026/(200*660) = 3.81


4. Design for maximum shear
V 420 *1000
v 3.18MPa
bd 200 * 660
0.8 f cu 0.8 25 4MPa
OK
100 As
3.8
bd
vc 0.91MPa
0.5vc 0.455MPa
0.4 vc 1.31MPa v 3.18MPa
High Shear
0.95 f y Asv 0.95 * 460 * 2 * 78.5
Sv 151mm
bv vc 200 * 3.18 0.91
0.75d 0.75 * 660 495mm
12dia of main bar 12 * 40 480
Hence
Pr ovide 2T 10 150mm c / c