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Beam Design

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Design

Chapter-4

Design of Beams

Objective of this chapter

member) was discussed for two mechanisms

(bending and shear.

This chapter is dedicated to the beam design as

a full package (preliminary, final and detailing), it

will include:

Simply supported beam design

Continuous beam design

Design Stages

design

3. Serviceability analysis

Preliminary Analysis and

Member Sizes

This stage includes

Idealisation of beam

Single span or multiple span

Effective span length

Support condition

Member Sizing (BS 8110-1997 guidelines)

Assigning of Loads (from slab, self weight, wall etc)

Assigning Concrete grade

Durability and Fire Rating

Concrete Cover

Preliminary Analysis and

Member Sizes

Preliminary Analysis and

Member Sizes

1

Lx

2

Ly

A B

Preliminary Analysis and

Member Sizes

Effective Span

The distance between centers of bearings, A

The CLEAR span plus the effective depth, D+d

Member Sizing

started from a point where details of the beam cross

section are given. In the usual design situation we need

to be able to start from scratch!!.

All designers develop their own techniques to help them

start to tackle the problem in hand. The following

example shows a simple method of sizing a beam using:

Span/Effective depth ratio to estimate a

suitable depth for the section.

Limiting the design shear stress (v = V/bd) for

example 1.2N/mm2.

Member Sizing

Member Sizing

b = wall thickness

b = 0.6*depth, or

200 mm

Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

BM and Shear

Simply supported

2

wl

M

8

wl

V

2

Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

Continuous

Symmetrical span and loading

BS-8110 moment and shear coefficient

Unsymmetrical span and loading

Moment distribution or computer analysis

Moment and shear envelope for different load patterns

Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

Choose critical values of BM for every span, maximum ve

and maximum +ve

Check for singly reinforced and/or doubly reinforced

Calculation of area of steel, AS and check for steel yielding.

Analysis of section for critical Shear, V

Calculation of concrete shear, vc

Calculation of shear reinforcement

BS 8110 codes requirements

Detailing of Beam

Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

Detailed analysis and reinforcement design

Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Load, UDL

Ly

Lx

Slab Loads = w kN/m2

Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Load, UDL

wLx/2

(Ly-Lx)/2 Lx/2

V kN/m

Lx/2

BS 8110 requirements

Reinforcement Details

The code (BS8110) requires the final design to pay

attention to:

1. Min and Max reinforcement as a percentage of the

gross CSA. (Cl. 3.12.5.3. & 3.12.6.1) - This will on the

one hand, help the control of cracking, increase

durability, while on the other assist placing and

compaction.

BS 8110 requirements

Reinforcement Details

2. Min and Max spacing (sb) of tension reinforcement

(Cl. 3.12.11.1.) - To allow good compaction and to

ensure crack widths do not exceed 0.3 mm

respectively.

Beam reinforcement detailing

T8-300 c/c

Effective Span

Beam reinforcement detailing

Anchorage Bond

tension as shown in the Figure must be properly

anchored, in order to pilling them out of

concrete.

Bars subjected to forces induced by flexure

must similarly be anchored to develop their

design stresses.

The anchorage depends on the bond between

the bar and the concrete, and the area of

contact

Anchorage Bond

Let

L = minimum anchorage length to prevent pull-out

= bar size or nominal diameter

fbu = ultimate anchorage bond stress

fs = the direct tensile or compressive stress in the bar

Anchorage Bond

tensile pull out bar area * direct force

2

fs

4

anchorage force contact area * anchorage bond stress

L * fbu

therefore

2

L * fbu fs

4 L

hence

fs

L L

4f bu

fs 0.95f y Effective Span

0.95fy

L

4f bu

Anchorage Bond

L

Effective Span

Anchorage Bond

Therefore

fbu fcu

The coefficient depends on the bar type or whether it is in tension or

compression. Values of are given in the following table

Coefficient,

Bar Type

Bar in Tension Bar in Compression

Plain bars 0.28 0.35

Type1: Deformed bars 0.40 0.50

Type 2: Deformed bars 0.50 0.63

Fabric 0.65 0.81

Anchorage Bond

Anchorage values for bends and hooks

Beam Design Example

2

Finishes = 2 kN/m

2

Live load = 3 kN/m

4m

8m

Beam Design Example

the long span beam of the slab. Following data is

given:

Choose the appropriate size of the beam

Concrete strength, fcu = 45 MPa

Steel yield strength, fy = 460 MPa

Total cover = 50 mm

Beam Design Example

Preliminary Design

Effective span = 8.0 m (c/c spacing between columns)

Beam width, b = 200 mm

Effective depth, d = span/20 = 8000/20 = 400 mm

Choose 500 mm deep beam d = 500 50 = 450 mm

OK

Beam Design Example

Loading on beam

From slab

gk = (0.2*24 + 2 )*(4/2) = 13.6 kN/m

qk = 3*4/2 = 6 kN/m

Self weight of beam

gk,beam = 0.2*0.5*24 = 2.4 kN/m

Total design load, wu

wu = 1.4*(13.6 + 2.4) + 1.6* 6 = 32 kN/m

Beam Design Example

Analysis of Beam

Mmax = wul2/8 = 32*82/8 = 256 kN-m

Vmax = wul/2 = 32*8/2 = 128 kN

Beam Design Example

Design of Beam

Mu 0.156fcubd2 = (0.156*45*200*5502)/106 = 284.3 kN-m

M = 256 < Mu = 284.3

The beam is singly reinforced

K = M/(fcubd2) = 256*106/(45*200*4502) = 0.140 < 0.156

z = d[0.5 + (0.25 (K/0.9))1/2]

z = 450*[0.5 + (0.25 (0.140/0.9))1/2] = 362.9

BS8110 Limit 0.95d > z > 0.75d

z = 0.95*450 = 427.5 (OK)

Beam Design Example

Bending Steel Reinforcement, As

As = M/(0.95fyz) = 256*106/(0.95*460*362.9)

As = 1614 mm2

Use 2-T32

As, provided = 2*804 = 1608

As, min = 0.13%*200*500 = 130 mm2

As, max = 4%*200*500 = 4000 mm2

Beam Design Example

SHEAR DESIGN

V = 128 kN

v = V/bd = 128000/(200*450) = 1.42 MPa < 5 MPa OK

100As/bd = 100*1608/(200*450) = 1.78

vc for 25 MPa = 0.76 MPa (from Table)

vc, for 45 MPa = (45/25)1/3*0.76 = 0.92 MPa

0.5vc = 0.46 < v and vc + 0.4 = 1.32 < v

Use 2 legged 8mm dia links Asv = 101 mm2

S = (0.95fyvAsv)/[b(v-vc)] = (0.95*460*101)/[200*(1.42-0.92)]

S = 441 use 2T8-300c/c

Example of Design of a

continuous beam

GIVEN

b, mm 200 b, mm 200 b, mm 200 b, mm 200

Beam Beam Beam Beam

h, mm 700 H, mm 700 H, mm 700 H, mm 700

Beam Loading A B C D E

7 7 7 7

Total, wu, kN/m 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0

Example of Design of a

continuous beam

Bending Design

Moment Coefficient 0 0.09 -0.11 0.07 -0.08 0.07 -0.11 0.09 0

F, kN 140.0 140.0 140.0 140.0

Moment, kN-m 0 88 -108 69 -78 69 -108 88 0

fcu, MPa 40 40 40 40

fy, MPa 460 460 460 460

Cover, mm 50 50 50 50

Mu = 0.156fcubd2 527 527 527 527 527 527 527

SR SR SR SR SR SR SR

K 0.026 0.032 0.020 0.023 0.020 0.032 0.026

z, mm 631 626 635 633 635 626 631

z <= 0.95d NOT OK OK NOT OK OK NOT OK OK NOT OK

As 320 394 247 284 247 394 320

Diameter, mm 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Number of Bars 2 2 1 1 1 2 2

Minimum steel check OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

Maximum steel check OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

Example of Design of a

continuous beam

Shear Design

A B C D E

Shear Coefficient 0.45 0.6 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.6 0.45

Shear, V (kN) 63 84 77 77 77 77 84 63

v, Mpa 0.48 0.65 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.65 0.48

100As/bd 0.48 0.24 0.24 0.48

vc for fcu = 25 0.56 0.45 0.45 0.56

vc for fcu 0.66 0.52 0.52 0.66

0.5vc 0.33 0.26 0.26 0.33

vc + 0.4 1.06 0.92 0.92 1.06

dia 6 6 6 6

Legged 2 2 2 2

Sv -713 -10409 1764 1764 1764 1764 -10409 -713

0.75d 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5 487.5

Spacing 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300

Example of Design of a

continuous beam

Continuous Beam Deaign on Line-1

Lx, m 1 Lx, m 1 Lx, m 1 Lx, m 1

Ly, m 1 Ly, m 1 Ly, m 1 Ly, m 1

Slab at Left

Slab at Left

Slab at Left

Slab at Left

Type TWO WAY Type TWO WAY Type TWO WAY Type TWO WAY

T, mm 0 T, mm 0 T, mm 0 T, mm 0

qk, Kpa 0 qk, Kpa 0 qk, Kpa 0 qk, Kpa 0

gk self, Kpa 0 gk self, Kpa 0 gk self, Kpa 0 gk self, Kpa 0

gk fin, Kpa 0 gk fin, Kpa 0 gk fin, Kpa 0 gk fin, Kpa 0

gk, Kpa 0 gk, Kpa 0 gk, Kpa 0 gk, Kpa 0

Lx, m 4 Lx, m 4 Lx, m 4 Lx, m 4

Ly, m 8 Ly, m 8 Ly, m 8 Ly, m 8

Slab at Right

Slab at Right

Slab at Right

Slab at Right

Type ONE WAY Type ONE WAY Type ONE WAY Type ONE WAY

T, mm 150 T, mm 150 T, mm 150 T, mm 150

qk, Kpa 3 qk, Kpa 3 qk, Kpa 3 qk, Kpa 3

gk self, Kpa 3.6 gk self, Kpa 3.6 gk self, Kpa 3.6 gk self, Kpa 3.6

gk fin, Kpa 1.5 gk fin, Kpa 1.5 gk fin, Kpa 1.5 gk fin, Kpa 1.5

gk, Kpa 5.1 gk, Kpa 5.1 gk, Kpa 5.1 gk, Kpa 5.1

Wall T, mm 200 Wall T, mm 200 Wall T, mm 200 Wall T, mm 200

g, kN/m3 18 g, kN/m3 18 g, kN/m3 18 g, kN/m3 18

b, mm 200 b, mm 200 b, mm 200 b, mm 200

Beam Beam Beam Beam

H, mm 550 H, mm 550 H, mm 550 H, mm 550

Span-1 Span-2 Span-3 Span-4

Beam Loading A B C D E

8 8 8 8

From Slab, qk, kN/m 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0

From Slab, gk, kN/m 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2

Self Weight, kN/m 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6

Wall Load, kN/m 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.6

Total, wu, kN/m 42.4 42.4 42.4 42.4

F, kN 339.6 339.6 339.6 339.6

Moment, kN-m 0 244 -299 190 -217 190 -299 244 0

fcu, MPa 45 45 45 45

fy, MPa 460 460 460 460

Cover, mm 40 40 40 40

Mu = 0.156fcubd2 365 365 365 365 365 365 365

SR SR SR SR SR SR SR

K 0.104 0.128 0.081 0.093 0.081 0.128 0.104

z, mm 442 423 459 450 459 423 442

z <= 0.95d OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

As 1267 1617 948 1104 948 1617 1267

Diameter, mm 25 32 25 25 25 32 25

Number of Bars 3 3 2 3 2 3 3

Minimum steel check OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

Maximum steel check OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

A B C D E

Shear Coefficient 0.45 0.6 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.6 0.45

Shear, V (kN) 153 204 187 187 187 187 204 153

v, Mpa 1.50 2.00 1.83 1.83 1.83 1.83 2.00 1.50

100As/bd 1.44 0.96 0.96 1.44

vc for fcu = 25 0.85 0.74 0.74 0.85

vc for fcu 1.03 0.90 0.90 1.03

0.5vc 0.52 0.45 0.45 0.52

vc + 0.4 1.43 1.30 1.30 1.43

dia 6 6 6 6

Legged 3 3 3 3

Sv 400 193 200 200 200 200 193 400

0.75d 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5 382.5

Spacing 300 150 150 150 150 150 150 300

Design of central beam as T-Beam for

the following data

1. LOADING

1a. Slab Loading

Self weight = 0.15x24 = 3.6 kN/m2

Finishes = 2.0 kN/m2

gk = 5.6 kN/m2

qk = 3.0 kN/m2

wu, slab = 1.4*5.6+1.6*3= 12.64 kN/m2

From slab = wu,slab*(half of left slab+ half of right slab)

= 12.64*(2 + 2) = 50.56 kN/m

Self weight of beam = 1.4*(0.2*0.7*24) = 4.7 kN/m

Wall loading = 1.4*10 = 14 kN/m

2. ANALYSIS (Shear Force and Bending Moment)

3.0 Design for Maximum Bending Moment

(To check the location of neutral axis)

Assume fcu = 25 MPa and fy 460 MPa

M 1260 x106

K 2

2

0.0482

b f d f cu 25 x2400 x660

Singly Re inf orced

k 0.0482

z d 0.5 0.25 660 0.5 0.25 622.5

0.9

0.9

0.95d 0.95 * 660 627

OK

S 2d z 2660 622.5 74.96 150

NA lies Inside Flange

M 1260 x106

As 4631mm2

0.95 f y z 0.95 * 460 * 622.5

BS 8110 Checks for Minimum and Maximum Steel

0.13%bh = (0.13/100)*200*700 = 182 mm2

4%bh = (4/100)*200*700 = 5600 mm2

Use 4T40

Asprovided = 4*1256 = 5026 Hence OK

4. Design for maximum shear

V 420 *1000

v 3.18MPa

bd 200 * 660

0.8 f cu 0.8 25 4MPa

OK

100 As

3.8

bd

vc 0.91MPa

0.5vc 0.455MPa

0.4 vc 1.31MPa v 3.18MPa

High Shear

0.95 f y Asv 0.95 * 460 * 2 * 78.5

Sv 151mm

bv vc 200 * 3.18 0.91

0.75d 0.75 * 660 495mm

12dia of main bar 12 * 40 480

Hence

Pr ovide 2T 10 150mm c / c

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