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- A form of energy resulting from the

existence of charged particles (such as electrons
or protons), either statically as an accumulation
of charge or dynamically as a current.
An atom is the smallest
particle of an element that
retains the characteristics of
that element. All matter is
made of atoms; and all
atoms consist of electrons,
protons, and neutrons. A
basic understanding of the
fundamental concepts of
current and voltage
requires a degree of
familiarity with the atom
and its structure.
The Bohr model of an atom
The orbiting electron carries a negative charge equal
in magnitude to the positive charge of the proton. In
general, the atomic structure of any stable atom has an
equal number of electrons and protons.
Copper is the most commonly used metal in the
electrical/electronics industry.
If this 29th electron gains sufficient
energy from the surrounding medium
to leave the parent atom, it is called a
free electron. In 1 cubic inch of copper
at room temperature, there are
approximately 1.4 x1024 free electrons.
Expanded, that is
free electrons in a 1 in. square cube.

As you know, an electron is the smallest particle

that exhibits negative electrical charge. The charge of
an electron and that of a proton are equal in
magnitude. Electrical charge is an electrical property
of matter that exists because of an excess or deficiency
of electrons. When an excess of electrons exists in a
material, there is a net negative electrical charge.
When a deficiency of electrons exists, there is a net
positive electrical charge. Charge is symbolized by the
letter Q. Static electricity is the presence of a net
positive or negative charge in a material.

When you rub a balloon on your pullover, you create static

electricity that makes it stick. The rubbing shifts electrons
from your pullover (which becomes positively charged) to the
latex rubber in the balloon (which becomes negatively
charged). The opposite charges make the two things stick.

Heavier, negatively charged particles sink to the

bottom of the cloud. When the positive and negative
charges grow large enough, a giant spark - lightning -
occurs between the two charges within the cloud. This is
like a static electricity sparks you see, but much bigger.
Attraction and repulsion of electrical charges
you very