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MANE 4240 & CIVL 4240

Introduction to Finite Elements

Prof. Suvranu De

Introduction to 3D
Elasticity
Reading assignment:

Appendix C+ 6.1+ 9.1 + Lecture notes

Summary:

3D elasticity problem
Governing differential equation + boundary conditions
Strain-displacement relationship
Stress-strain relationship
Special cases
2D (plane stress, plane strain)
Axisymmetric body with axisymmetric loading
Principle of minimum potential energy
1D Elasticity (axially loaded bar)
y A(x) = cross section at x
b(x) = body force distribution
F (force per unit length)
x E(x) = Youngs modulus
x u(x) = displacement of the bar
x=0 x=L at x

1. Strong formulation: Equilibrium equation + boundary


conditions
d
Equilibrium equation b 0; 0 xL
dx
Boundary conditions u 0 at x 0
du
EA F at x L
dx
du
2. Strain-displacement relationship: (x)
dx

3. Stress-strain (constitutive) relation : (x) E (x)


E: Elastic (Youngs) modulus of bar
3D Elasticity
Problem definition

Surface (S) V: Volume of body


S: Total surface of the body
Volume (V) The deformation at point
w x =[x,y,z]T
v is given by the 3
u components of its u
z
x displacement u v
w
NOTE: u= u(x,y,z), i.e., each
displacement component is a function
y
x of position
3D Elasticity:
EXTERNAL FORCES ACTING ON THE BODY

Two basic types of external forces act on a body


1. Body force (force per unit volume) e.g., weight, inertia, etc
2. Surface traction (force per unit surface area) e.g., friction
BODY FORCE

Volume
Xc dV
element dV Body force: distributed
Xb dV force per unit volume (e.g.,
Xa dV weight, inertia, etc)
w
Volume (V) X a
v
u X X b
Surface (S) X
z
x c
NOTE: If the body is accelerating, u

then the inertia force u
v
y w
x
may be considered as part of X
~
X X u
SURFACE TRACTION
Volume pz
Xc dV Traction: Distributed
element dV
Xb dV p py force per unit surface
x area
Xa dV
w
Volume (V)
v ST
u p x
z
x T S p y
p
z
y
x
3D Elasticity:
INTERNAL FORCES
Volume z
element dV
zy
zx yz
w xz y
Volume (V) xy
v yx
u
z x
x

y
x If I take out a chunk of material from the body, I will see that,
due to the external forces applied to it, there are reaction
forces (e.g., due to the loads applied to a truss structure, internal
forces develop in each truss member). For the cube in the figure,
the internal reaction forces per unit area(red arrows) , on each
surface, may be decomposed into three orthogonal components.
3D Elasticity
z
x, y and z are normal stresses.
zy
zx yz The rest 6 are the shear stresses
xz y Convention
xy xy is the stress on the face
z
yx perpendicular to the x-axis and points
x in the +ve y direction
Total of 9 stress components of which
y xy yx
x only 6 are independent since
x yz zy
zx xz
The stress vector is therefore y

z

xy
yz

zx
x

Strains: 6 independent strain components y
z

xy
yz

zx

Consider the equilibrium of a differential volume element to


obtain the 3 equilibrium equations of elasticity
x xy xz
Xa 0
x y z
xy y yz
Xb 0
x y z
xz yz z
Xc 0
x y z
Compactly;
EQUILIBRIUM T (1)
EQUATIONS X 0

where
x 0 0

0 0
y

0 0
z

0
y x

0
z y
0

z x
3D elasticity problem is completely defined once we
understand the following three concepts
Strong formulation (governing differential equation +
boundary conditions)
Strain-displacement relationship
Stress-strain relationship
Volume pz
Xc dV
element dV
Xb dV p py
x
Xa dV
w
Volume (V)
v ST
u
z
x
Su

y
x
1. Strong formulation of the 3D elasticity problem: Given the
externally applied loads (on ST and in V) and the specified
displacements (on Su) we want to solve for the resultant
displacements, strains and stresses required to maintain
equilibrium of the body.
Equilibrium equations
T
X 0 in V (1)

Boundary conditions

1. Displacement boundary conditions: Displacements are specified


on portion Su of the boundary
specified
uu on S u

2. Traction (force) boundary conditions: Tractions are specified on


portion ST of the boundary
Now, how do I express this mathematically?
Volume pz
Xc dV Traction: Distributed
element dV
Xb dV p py force per unit area
x
Xa dV p x
w
Volume (V) T S p y
v ST p
u z
z
x
Su

y
x
TS
nz pz Traction: Distributed
force per unit area
n
py p x
ny
T S p y
nx px p
ST z
n x

If the unit outward normal to ST : n n y
n
z
Then p x x nx xy n y xz nz
p y xy nx y n y yz nz
p z xz nx zy n y z nz
py TS
In 2D n xy
ny

dy ds nx x dy ds px
xy dx
dx
y ST
y
x Consider the equilibrium of the wedge
in x-direction
dx p x ds x dy xy dx
sin ny
ds dy dx
dy px x xy
cos nx ds ds
ds p x x n x xy n y
Similarly
p y xy n x y n y
3D elasticity problem is completely defined once we
understand the following three concepts
Strong formulation (governing differential equation +
boundary conditions)
Strain-displacement relationship
Stress-strain relationship
2. Strain-displacement relationships:
u
x
x
v
y
y
w
z
z
u v
xy
y x
v w
yz
z y
u w
zx
z x
Compactly; u (2)


x 0 0

x 0 0
y
y u
z 0 0
z u v
xy
0
w

yz y x

zx
0
z y
0

z x
u
dy
y
C
In 2D v y
v dy
y
C 2
B
u A v
dy 1 dx
x
v
A dx B
x
u u
u dx

dx u dx u dx x
A' B' AB x u
x
AB dx x
v
dy
v dy
v dy
A' C' AC y v

y
AC dy y

xy angle (C' A' B' ) 1 2 tan 1 tan 2
2
v u

x x
3D elasticity problem is completely defined once we
understand the following three concepts
Strong formulation (governing differential equation +
boundary conditions)
Strain-displacement relationship
Stress-strain relationship
3. Stress-Strain relationship:

Linear elastic material (Hookes Law)


D (3)

Linear elastic isotropic material

1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0
E 1 2
D 0 0 0
2
0 0
(1 )(1 2 )
1 2
0 0 0 0 0
2
1 2
0 0 0 0 0
2
Special cases:

1. 1D elastic bar (only 1 component of the stress (stress) is


nonzero. All other stress (strain) components are zero)
Recall the (1) equilibrium, (2) strain-displacement and (3) stress-
strain laws
2. 2D elastic problems: 2 situations
PLANE STRESS
PLANE STRAIN
3. 3D elastic problem: special case-axisymmetric body with
axisymmetric loading (we will skip this)
PLANE STRESS: Only the in-plane stress components are nonzero
Area
Nonzero stress components x , y , xy
element dA h
xy y
xy
x
D
y Assumptions:
1. h<<D
2. Top and bottom surfaces are free from
traction
x 3. Xc=0 and pz=0
PLANE STRESS Examples:
1. Thin plate with a hole

xy y
xy
x

2. Thin cantilever plate


PLANE STRESS
Nonzero stresses: x , y , xy
Nonzero strains: x , y , z , xy

Isotropic linear elastic stress-strain law D

x
1 0 x

y
E
1 0 y z x y
1 2
1 1
xy 0 0 xy
2

Hence, the D matrix for the plane stress case is



1 0
E
D 1 0
1
2
1
0 0
2
PLANE STRAIN: Only the in-plane strain components are nonzero

Nonzero strain components x , y , xy


Area
xy y
element dA
xy
x

Assumptions:
y 1. Displacement components u,v functions
of (x,y) only and w=0
2. Top and bottom surfaces are fixed
x 3. Xc=0
4. px and py do not vary with z
z
PLANE STRAIN Examples:
1. Dam Slice of unit
thickness
1

xy y
y xy
x
z

x
z
2. Long cylindrical pressure vessel subjected to internal/external
pressure and constrained at the ends
PLANE STRAIN
Nonzero stress: x , y , z , xy
Nonzero strain components: x , y , xy
Isotropic linear elastic stress-strain law D

x
1 0 x
E
z x y
y 1 0 y
1 1 2 0 1 2
xy 0 xy
2

Hence, the D matrix for the plane strain case is



1 0
E
D 1 0
1 1 2 1 2
0 0
2
y
Example problem

The square block is in plane strain


2

2 1
and is subjected to the following
strains
2
x 2 xy
3 4
x y 3xy 2
xy x 2 y 3

Compute the displacement field (i.e., displacement components


u(x,y) and v(x,y)) within the block
Solution
Recall from definition
u
x 2 xy (1)
x
v
y 3xy 2 (2)
y
u v
xy x 2 y 3 (3)
y x
Arbitrary function of x
Integrating (1) and (2)
u ( x, y ) x 2 y C1 ( y ) ( 4)
v( x, y ) xy 3 C2 ( x) (5)

Arbitrary function of y
Plug expressions in (4) and (5) into equation (3)

u v
x 2 y 3 (3)
y x



x 2 y C1 ( y ) xy 3 C2 ( x)
x2 y3
y x
C1 ( y ) C2 ( x)
x
2
y 3
x2 y3
y x
C ( y ) C2 ( x)
1 0
y x

Function of y Function of x
Hence
C1 ( y ) C2 ( x)
C (a constant)
y x
Integrate to obtain
C1 ( y ) Cy D1 D1 and D2 are two constants of
C2 ( x) Cx D2 integration

Plug these back into equations (4) and (5)


(4) u ( x, y ) x 2 y Cy D1
(5) v( x, y ) xy 3 Cx D2

How to find C, D1 and D2?


Use the 3 boundary conditions
y
u (0,0) 0
v(0,0) 0 2

v(2,0) 0 2 1

To obtain 2

C 0 3 4
x
D1 0
D2 0
Hence the solution is

u ( x, y ) x 2 y
v( x, y ) xy 3
Principle of Minimum Potential Energy

Definition: For a linear elastic body subjected to body forces


X=[Xa,Xb,Xc]T and surface tractions TS=[px,py,pz]T, causing
displacements u=[u,v,w]T and strains and stresses , the potential
energy is defined as the strain energy minus the potential energy
of the loads involving X and TS

U-W
Volume pz
Xc dV
element dV
Xb dV p py
x
Xa dV
w
Volume (V)
v ST
u
z
x
Su
1
U dV
T

y 2 V
x
W u X dV u T S dS
T T
V ST
Strain energy of the elastic body

Using the stress-strain law D


1 1
U dV D dV
T T

2 V 2 V
In 1D
1 1 1 L
U dV E dV E 2 Adx
2

2 V 2 V 2 x 0
In 2D plane stress and plane strain

U x x y y xy xy dV
1
2 V
Why?
Principle of minimum potential energy: Among all admissible
displacement fields the one that satisfies the equilibrium equations
also render the potential energy a minimum.

admissible displacement field:


1. first derivative of the displacement components exist
2. satisfies the boundary conditions on Su