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A demonstrative pronoun points to and

identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This"


and "these" refer to things that are
nearby either in space or in time, while
"that" and "those" refer to things that are
farther away in space or time.
Singular Masculine
(this)
(that)
(that)
Plural Masculine
(these)
(those)
(those)
Singular Feminine
(those)
(that)
(that)
Plural Feminine
(these)
(those)
(those)
Singular Neuter
(this)
(that)
(that)
Examples:
I want this flower. I don't want that one.

I like those houses. I don't like those over


there.
This was my mothers ring.
That looks like the car I used to drive.
These are nice shoes, but they look uncomfortable.
Those look like riper than the apples on my tree.
Such was her command over the English language.
None of these answers are correct.
Neither of the horses can be ridden.
I tried on many shirts. I'm going to buy this one.

I tried on many hats. I'm going to buy this one.


Neuter pronouns: The neuter pronouns are never
used to substitute for a specific noun. They are
used to refer to an unknown object or to an
idea or concept that isn't specifically named.
(If you would have occasion to use a neuter
plural, use the plural masculine form.) The use
of eso is extremely common to refer to a
situation that has just been stated.
Examples:
What is this?

This is good.
Mary's father died. Because of that, she's sad.

I have to leave at eight. Don't forget that.


PLURAL RULES
Plural Rule 1
Most words add s to make the plural.
one apple two apples
desk desks month months
book books train trains
pen pens name names
shop shops friend friends
chair chairs teacher teachers
PLURAL RULE 2
Add es to words ending in ch, sh, s, ss, x or z to make the
plural.
one box many boxes
wish wishes beach beaches
cross crosses waltz waltzes
bus buses church churches
dish dishes loss losses
fox foxes bunch bunches
PLURAL RULE 3
When the letter before a y is a consonant, change the
y to an i before adding an es.
one baby two babies

city cities berry berries


pony ponies family families
reply replies lady ladies
PLURAL RULE 4
When words end in ay, ey, iy, oy, and uy add an s to make
the plural.
one donkey two donkeys

day days boy boys


key keys delay delays
play plays guy guys
PLURAL RULE 5
When words end in f or fe change the f or fe to a
v before adding es.
one knife two knives

leaf leaves life lives


half halves hoof hooves
wife wives thief thieves
PLURAL RULE 6
When a word ends in an o and comes after a
consonant, add es to make the plural.
one tomato two tomatoes

cargo cargoes mango mangoes


echo echoes hero heroes
volcano volcanoes torpedo torpedoes
PLURAL RULES 7
Sometimes a word may completely change its form when a plural is
made.
one child two children

person people goose geese


man men woman women
cactus cacti fungus fungi
PLURAL RULE 8
Sometimes a word may stay the same in both its singular
and plural form.
one fish many fish

tuna tuna trout trout


deer deer sheep sheep
moose moose series series
A LOT OF / MUCH / MANY
Has she got many friends?
Yes, she's got a lot of
friends.
Is there much ham on the
plate? No, there isn't much.
There are only three slices.

Are there many people in


the swimming pool?
No, there aren't many.
There are only two.
A LOT OF / LOTS OF

We use a lot of/lots of with plural countable nouns


(e.g. books, cars, etc.) and uncountable nouns (e.g.
sugar, milk, etc.) in all types of sentences.

She's got a lot of/lots of books.


There's a lot of milk in the fridge.

Note: We omit of when a lot is not followed by a noun.


Are there many people in the room? Yes, there are
a lot.
MUCH
We use much with uncountable nouns, normally, in
questions and negations.
Questions:
Do you drink much coffe?

How much money have you got?

Negations:
There isn't much sugar in the bowl.
I dont drink much coffee
So you dont normally use much in affirmative sentences
(you use a lot of)
I drink a lot of coffee
Many
We normally use many with plural countable
nouns in all types of sentences.

Are there many books on the shelf?


There aren't many books on the shelf.
Weve got many friends
HOW MANY

In questions we use how much to ask about the amount of


something and therefore, with uncountable nouns

How much + uncountable noun


How much sugar do we need? A kilo.

We use how many to ask about the number of things and


so, with plural countable nouns

How many + plural countable noun


How many boys are there in your class? Twenty.
VERY, MUCH & MANY

It is important that you distinguish between


VERY, MANY and MUCH

You use it
Spanish Example
with
Shes a very nice
VERY Adjectives Muy
person
MUC Uncountable I havent got much
Mucho/a
H nouns time
MAN Countable Muchos/ Do you have many
Y Nouns as CDs?